Charles M. Cleland headshot

Charles M Cleland

Research Scientist

1 212 992 9417

433 First Avenue
Room 737
New York, NY 10010
United States

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Professional overview

Charles Cleland, PhD, is a quantitative psychologist and biostatistician with over 10 years of experience in the field of public health research. His methodological interests include longitudinal data analysis, meta-analysis, respondent-driven sampling, and multilevel modeling. His substantive research interests include health disparities, particularly in the areas of substance use and infectious disease. 


PhD, 1998, Social Psychology, New School for Social Research
MA, 1993, Social Psychology, New School for Social Research
BA, 1991, Psychology, Hampden-Sydney College

Honors and awards

The Alfred J. Marrow Award in the Field of Psychology (1997)

Professional membership

American Psychological Society
American Psychological Association
Supporting Member of the R Foundation for Statistical Computing



Public Health Benefit of Peer-Referral Strategies for Detecting Undiagnosed HIV Infection Among High-Risk Heterosexuals in New York City.

Gwadz, M., Cleland, C. M., Perlman, D. C., Hagan, H., Jenness, S. M., Leonard, N. R., Ritchie, A. S., & Kutnick, A. (2017). Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 74(5), 499-507. 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001257
Identifying undiagnosed HIV infection is necessary for the elimination of HIV transmission in the United States. The present study evaluated the efficacy of 3 community-based approaches for uncovering undiagnosed HIV among heterosexuals at high-risk (HHR), who are mainly African American/Black and Hispanic. Heterosexuals comprise 24% of newly reported HIV infections in the United States, but experience complex multilevel barriers to HIV testing. We recruited African American/Black and Hispanic HHR in a discrete urban area with both elevated HIV prevalence and poverty rates. Approaches tested were (1) respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and confidential HIV testing in 2 sessions (n = 3116); (2) RDS and anonymous HIV testing in one session (n = 498); and (3) venue-based sampling (VBS) and HIV testing in a single session (n = 403). The main outcome was newly diagnosed HIV infection. RDS with anonymous testing and one session reached HHR with less HIV testing experience and more risk factors than the other approaches. Furthermore, RDS with anonymous (4.0%) and confidential (1.0%) testing yielded significantly higher rates of newly diagnosed HIV than VBS (0.3%). Thus peer-referral approaches were more efficacious than VBS for uncovering HHR with undiagnosed HIV, particularly a single-session/anonymous strategy, and have a vital role to play in efforts to eliminate HIV transmission.