Alterations in Patterns of Gene Expression and Perturbed Pathways in the Gut-Brain Axis Are Associated With Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea
Singh, K. P., Dhruva, A., Flowers, E., Paul, S. M., Hammer, M. J., Wright, F., Cartwright, F., Conley, Y. P., Melisko, M., Levine, J. D., Miaskowski, C., & Kober, K. M. (2020). Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 59(6), 1248-1259.e5. 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2019.12.352
Context: Despite current advances in antiemetic treatments, approximately 50% of oncology patients experience chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate for differentially expressed genes and perturbed pathways associated with the gut-brain axis (GBA) across two independent samples of oncology patients who did and did not experience CIN. Methods: Oncology patients (n = 735) completed study questionnaires in the week before their second or third cycle of chemotherapy. CIN occurrence was assessed using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Gene expression analyses were performed in two independent samples using ribonucleic acid sequencing (Sample 1, n = 357) and microarray (Sample 2, n = 352) methodologies. Fisher's combined probability method was used to determine genes that were differentially expressed and pathways that were perturbed between the two nausea groups across both samples. Results: CIN was reported by 63.6% of the patients in Sample 1 and 48.9% of the patients in Sample 2. Across the two samples, 703 genes were differentially expressed, and 37 pathways were found to be perturbed between the two CIN groups. We identified nine perturbed pathways that are involved in mechanisms associated with alterations in the GBA (i.e., mucosal inflammation, disruption of gut microbiome). Conclusion: Persistent CIN remains a significant clinical problem. Our study is the first to identify novel GBA-related pathways associated with the occurrence of CIN. Our findings warrant confirmation and suggest directions for future clinical studies to decrease CIN occurrence.
Anxiety about aging, resilience and health Status among Chinese older adults: Findings from Honolulu and Wuhan
A growing body of literature found that anxiety about aging is related to health and well-being of older adults. However, very few studies have been conducted on Chinese older adults residing in different countries and examined the role of resilience. Using the Pearlin's Stress Process Model, this study aims to fill in this gap by examining the relationship between anxiety about aging as the stressor and health status among Chinese older adults living in Honolulu, the United States (N = 292) and Wuhan, China (N = 532). The survey data were collected through June 2017 to September 2018, using snowball and convenience sampling strategy. The moderating role of resilience on the focal relationship is also explored. Results showed that for both samples, the negative relationship between anxiety about aging and self-rated health was significantly moderated by resilience (18 % and 13 %, respectively), implying the stress-buffering role of resilience. Although both mean levels of resilience and anxiety about aging were lower for the Honolulu sample, the moderating effect appeared to be stronger, implying that older adults in the Honolulu sample might rely more on psychological resources such as resilience in coping with stressors, compared with their counterparts in Wuhan. However, the moderating effect of resilience did not work for the association between anxiety about aging and number of chronic conditions for both samples. Our findings suggest that future research needs to take into account both social and psychological resources when examining anxiety about aging and health status among Chinese older adults residing in different cultural contexts.
Assessing providers’ approach to hypertension management at a large, private hospital in Kampala, Uganda
Background: Hypertension is increasingly prevalent in Uganda and its clinical management remains subop-timal across the country. Prior research has elucidated some of the factors contributing to poor control, but little is known about providers’ approaches to hypertension management and perceptions of barriers to care. This is particularly true in private health care settings – despite the fact that the private sector provides a substantial and growing portion of health care in Uganda. Objective: Our exploratory, pragmatic qualitative study aimed to examine the factors affecting the quality of hypertension care from the perspective of providers working in an urban, private hospital in Uganda. We focused on the organizational and system-level factors influencing providers’ approaches to management in the outpatient setting. Methods: We conducted interviews with 19 health care providers working in the outpatient setting of a 110-bed, private urban hospital in Kampala, Uganda. We then coded the interviews for thematic analysis, using an inductive approach to generate the study’s findings. Findings: Several themes emerged around perceived barriers and facilitators to care. Providers cited patient beliefs and behaviors, driven in part by cultural norms, as key challenges to hypertension control; however, most felt their own approach to hypertension treatment aligned with international guidelines. Providers struggled to collaborate with colleagues in coordinating the joint management of patients. Furthermore, they cited the high cost and limited availability of medication as barriers. Conclusions: These findings offer important strategic direction for intervention development specific to this Ugandan context: for example, regarding culturally-adapted patient education initiatives, or programs to improve access to essential medications. Other settings facing similar challenges scaling up management of hypertension may find the results useful for informing intervention development as well.
Association between childhood conditions and arthritis among middle-aged and older adults in China: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal StudyAbstract
This study examined the association between childhood conditions and arthritis among middle-aged and older adults in China. The data were derived from the 2015 wave and the life-history module of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with respondents age 45 and over across China. Multiple imputation was used to handle the missing data, generating a final analytic sample of 19,800. Doctor-diagnosed arthritis was the main outcome variable. Random-effects logistic regression models were used to test the proposed models. Approximately 8 per cent of the respondents had better family financial status in childhood than their neighbours. Close to 8 per cent had been hospitalised or encountered similar conditions (e.g. confined to bed or home) for at least one month in childhood. Around one-third reported better subjective health in childhood than their peers. The majority of the respondents (80%) reported that they had stable health resources, and that their mothers were illiterate during their childhood. Childhood family financial status, subjective health, mother's education, access to health care and medical catastrophic events were found to be significant factors associated with arthritis in later life, after controlling for adulthood and older-age conditions (family financial status: odds ratio (OR) = 0.885, 95 per cent confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.848-0.924; subjective health: OR = 0.924, 95% CI = 0.889-0.960; mother's education: OR = 0.863, 95% CI = 0.750-0.992; access to health care: OR = 0.729, 95% CI = 0.552-0.964; medical catastrophic events: OR = 1.266, 95% CI = 1.108-1.446). The study results highlight an important role that childhood conditions play in affecting the onset of arthritis in late life in China. Health-care providers may consider childhood conditions as a valuable screening criterion to identify risk populations, which could be used to guide health promotion and prevention programmes, and promote healthy ageing.
Association of Diabetes and Other Clinical and Sociodemographic Factors with Guideline-concordant Breast Cancer Treatment for Breast Cancer
Gold, H. T., Shao, H., Oratz, R., Yu, O., Hammer, M., Richardson, S., & Boudreau, D. (2020). American Journal of Clinical Oncology: Cancer Clinical Trials, 43(2), 101-106. 10.1097/COC.0000000000000638
Background:Women with breast cancer have worse health outcomes with co-occurring type 2 diabetes, possibly due to suboptimal breast cancer treatment.Methods:We created a cohort of women ages 66 to 85 y with stage I to III breast cancer from 1993 to 2012 from an integrated health care delivery system (n=1612) and fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries (n=98,915), linked to Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data (total n=100,527). We evaluated associations between type 2 diabetes and other factors with undergoing guideline-concordant cancer treatment. We estimated χ2 tests for univariate analysis and relative risks (RRs) using multivariable log-binomial models for outcomes of (1) overall guideline-concordant treatment, (2) definitive surgical therapy (mastectomy or lumpectomy with radiation), (3) chemotherapy if indicated, and (4) endocrine therapy.Results:Our cohort included 60% of subjects with stage 1 tumors, one quarter below 70 years old, 23% had diabetes, 35% underwent overall guideline-concordant treatment, 24% chemotherapy, and 83% endocrine therapy. Women with diabetes were less likely to undergo overall guideline-concordant treatment (RR: 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.94-0.98), and only slightly less likely to undergo guideline-concordant definitive surgical therapy (RR: 0.99; 95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.00). No differences were found for chemotherapy or endocrine therapy. Other factors significantly associated with a lower risk of guideline-concordant care were cancer stages II to III (vs. I; RR=0.47-0.69, P<0.0001), older age (vs. 66 to 69 y; RR=0.56-0.90, P<0.0001), higher comorbidity burden, and Medicaid dual-eligibility.Conclusions:Diabetes was associated with lower adherence to overall guideline-concordant breast cancer treatment. However, higher stage, older age, higher comorbidity burden, and Medicaid insurance were more strongly associated with lower use of guideline-concordant treatment. Given the heavy burden of breast cancer and diabetes, long-term outcomes analysis should consider guideline-concordant treatment.Impact:Other factors besides diabetes are more strongly associated with guideline-concordant breast cancer treatment.
Association of HLA Genotype With T-Cell Activation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Women
Kovacs, A. A., Kono, N., Wang, C. H., Wang, D., Frederick, T., Operskalski, E., Tien, P. C., French, A. L., Minkoff, H., Kassaye, S., T. Golub, E., Aouizerat, B. E., Kuniholm, M. H., & Millstein, J. (2020). The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 221(7), 1156-1166. 10.1093/infdis/jiz589
BACKGROUND: Global immune activation and HLA alleles are each associated with the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus . METHODS: We evaluated the relationship between 44 HLA class I and 28 class II alleles and percentages of activated CD8 (CD8+CD38+DR+) and CD4 (CD4+CD38+DR+) T cells in 586 women who were naive to highly active antiretroviral therapy. We used linear generalized estimating equation regression models, adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, HIV load, and hepatitis C virus infection and controlling for multiplicity using a false discovery rate threshold of 0.10. RESULTS: Ten HLA alleles were associated with CD8 and/or CD4 T-cell activation. Lower percentages of activated CD8 and/or CD4 T cells were associated with protective alleles B*57:03 (CD8 T cells, -6.6% [P = .002]; CD4 T cells, -2.7% [P = .007]), C*18:01 (CD8 T cells, -6.6%; P < .0008) and DRB1*13:01 (CD4 T cells, -2.7%; P < .0004), and higher percentages were found with B*18:01 (CD8 T cells, 6.2%; P < .0003), a detrimental allele. Other alleles/allele groups associated with activation included C*12:03, group DQA1*01:00, DQB1*03:01, DQB1*03:02, DQB1*06:02, and DQB1*06:03. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that a person's HLA type may play a role in modulating T-cell activation independent of viral load and sheds light on the relationship between HLA, T-cell activation, immune control, and HIV pathogenesis.
Association of personality profiles with coping and adjustment to cancer among patients undergoing chemotherapy
Langford, D. J., Morgan, S., Cooper, B., Paul, S., Kober, K., Wright, F., Hammer, M. J., Conley, Y. P., Levine, J. D., Miaskowski, C., & Dunn, L. B. (2020). Psycho-Oncology, 29(6), 1060-1067. 10.1002/pon.5377
Objective: Specific personality traits are associated with differential use of various coping strategies. Few studies have examined the relationship between personality and coping in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. We, therefore, examined the relationship between previously identified personality profiles (ie, Distressed [14.3% of total sample], Normative [53.8%], Resilient [31.9%]) and measures of coping and adjustment. Methods: Patients (n = 1248) undergoing chemotherapy for breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer completed measures of personality (NEO-Five Factor Inventory), coping (Brief COPE), and psychological adjustment to cancer (Mental Adjustment to Cancer [MAC] scale). Differences in coping and adjustment among the three personality profiles were evaluated using analysis of variance. Results: On the Brief COPE, the Distressed class endorsed lower use of Active Coping, Positive Reframing, Acceptance, Emotional Support (ie, “engagement” coping); and greater use of Denial, Venting, Behavioral Disengagement, Self-Blame (ie, “disengagement” coping) compared to the Normative and Resilient classes. On the MAC scale, the Distressed class scored higher on Anxious Preoccupation, Helplessness/Hopelessness, Fatalism, and Avoidance, and lower on Fighting Spirit, compared to the other two classes. Conclusions: In this sample of oncology patients receiving chemotherapy, patients in the Distressed personality class showed a reduced repertoire of adaptive coping strategies, while those in the Resilient class reported greater use of adaptive or engagement coping strategies. Further work should examine the potential mediating or moderating role of coping and adjustment in the relationships between personality and patient outcomes. Interventions to enhance beneficial and reduce harmful coping strategies in cancer patients should be evaluated.
Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in the Dominican Republic: Perspectives of Focus Group Participants in the Santo Domingo Area
Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the Dominican Republic, and high rates persist despite existing Pap smear screening programs. The purpose of this study was to explore Dominican women’s knowledge and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening practices, and perceived barriers and facilitators to early detection of cervical cancer. Method: Six focus groups (N = 64) were conducted in Spanish in urban, suburban, and rural locations, in private and public school settings, community and workplace settings, in or near Santo Domingo, as part of a larger study on barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccine implementation. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and translated from Spanish to English. Qualitative data analysis used inductive and deductive approaches. Results: Knowledge regarding HPV and cervical cancer varied across groups, but all agreed there was significant stigma and fear regarding HPV. Most women reported having Pap screening at least yearly. Follow-up of abnormal Pap testing was less consistent, with cost and uncertainty about provider recommendations identified as barriers. Discussion: Broader examination of provider-level and health system barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer prevention in the Dominican Republic is essential, in order to inform interventions to improve the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening and treatment programs and reduce preventable deaths.
Building a Safe and Healthy America: Eliminating Corporal Punishment via Positive Parenting
Hornor, G., Quinones, S. G., Boudreaux, D., Bretl, D., Chapman, E., Chiocca, E. M., Donnell, C., Herendeen, P., Kahn, D., Loyke, J., Morris, K. A., Mulvaney, B., Perks, D. H., Terreros, A., & VanGraafeiland, B. (2020). Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 34(2), 136-144. 10.1016/j.pedhc.2019.09.008
Abstract corporal punishment (CP) is associated with negative short-term and long-term children outcomes. However, many caregivers continue to administer spankings and other forms of CP. Pediatric nurse practitioners are in a unique position to affect change in parental behavior related to CP use and other parenting practices. This article will summarize the research on the dangers of CP and the corresponding benefits of positive parenting. It defines positive parenting and offers resources pediatric health care providers, including pediatric nurse practitioners, can use to educate both themselves and caregivers about specific discipline techniques appropriate to each developmental stage. Finally, it suggests practice strategies pediatric nurse practitioners can use to help caregivers replace CP and other harsh parenting practices with positive parenting to build a safe and healthy America.
Buprenorphine Induction Simulation: Focus on Patient Safety and Quality Care
Background: Provider education for medication-assisted treatment (MAT) primarily relies on didactic instruction. Clinical simulation that enhances the ability of advanced practice nurses (APRNs) is needed to effectively and safely implement MAT. Method: We developed and conducted a pilot study of a MAT clinical simulation designed to enhance patient safety and increase MAT competency. Results: Clinical simulation improved APRN preparedness to effectively implement MAT. In addition, students indicated increased self-efficacy and better understanding of patient safety. Conclusions: Clinical simulation is an innovative way to teach APRN students to effectively implement buprenorphine treatment while ensuring patient safety.
The CCRN® Certification: Why It Matters?
Lim, F., Chen, L., & Salinas,. (2020). Nursing Critical Care, 15(3), 38-41.
Characterizing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption for US Children and Adolescents by Race/Ethnicity
OBJECTIVES: To examine racial/ethnic differences in type of SSB most frequently consumed and in correlates of youth sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake.METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011-2016, for children and adolescents aged 5-17 years (n = 6507). The main outcome was SSB consumption (i.e., sodas, sweetened fruit drinks, nectars, sports and energy drinks, sweetened coffees and teas, enhanced waters). Mean and proportions of SSB intake were estimated accounting for complex sampling strategy and weighting. Multivariable regression models were developed for each race/ethnicity and age group.RESULTS: Two-thirds of children and adolescents reported consuming SSB on a given day. Among consumers, mean SSB consumption was greatest for Black children and White adolescents and lowest for Asian American children and adolescents. The most popular type of SSB consumed was sweetened fruit drinks among children and soda among adolescents, except among White and Mexican American children for whom soda and Black adolescents for whom sweetened fruit drinks were most popular. Female sex and water intake were negatively associated with SSB consumption across most races/ethnicities. Screen time, dentist visits, nativity, and guardian education were associated with SSB intake among a subset of races/ethnicities.CONCLUSIONS: Associations between covariates and SSB intake as well as types of beverages preferred vary by race/ethnicity, as such chronic disease policies should not be 'one size fits all'. Targeted interventions for specific groups of vulnerable youths hold promise for further reducing SSB consumption, including directing efforts towards reducing sweetened fruit drinks for Black children.
Community Acquired Pneumonia
Taub, L.-F., & Pasklinsky, N. (2020). In , & , Clinical Simulations for the Advanced Practice Nurse. Springer.
Consortium Building for Nurse Scientists Interested in Symptoms Research in the Era of Precision Health
Hsiao, C. P., Dickinson, K., Gonzalez-Mercado, V., Kelly, D. L., Lukkahatai, N., McCabe, M., Mayo, S., Musanti, R., & Saligan, L. N. (2020). Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 52(2), 183-191. 10.1111/jnu.12534
Purpose: This article aims to provide perspectives on the establishment of a consortium for nurse scientists with similar career trajectories interested in cancer-related symptoms (CRS) research. Hereby, we describe the development of and recent outcomes from the CRS consortium, the lessons learned in establishing the consortium, and future directions to advance the science of CRS. Model and Methods: New and innovative strategies are needed to address the complexity of CRS research. A CRS consortium was created to allow a mechanism for oncology nurse scientists with varying expertise to collaborate to advance CRS research. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Symptom Science Model (SSM) guides the research of the CRS Consortium. Discussion and Conclusions: A need for improved CRS assessment and management has been identified. The CRS consortium was created as a collaborative think tank to begin to address this need. Guided by the NIH SSM, CRS consortium members have worked to define symptom phenotypes, enhance understanding of the biologic mechanisms that can contribute to symptom phenotypes, and develop tailored interventions to improve symptom management. Dissemination of the CRS consortium efforts involve publications and presentations. Clinical Implications: Nurse scientists interested in symptom science and biobehavorial research face many challenges on how to initiate and sustain independent programs of research. Through the formation of a CRS consortium, oncology nurse scientists can work together to address identified issues in symptom measurement and management.
A Descriptive Analysis of an Ambulatory Kidney Palliative Care Program
Background: Many patients with serious kidney disease have an elevated symptom burden, high mortality, and poor quality of life. Palliative care has the potential to address these problems, yet nephrology patients frequently lack access to this specialty. Objectives: We describe patient demographics and clinical activities of the first 13 months of an ambulatory kidney palliative care (KPC) program that is integrated within a nephrology practice. Design/Measurements: Utilizing chart abstractions, we characterize the clinic population served, clinical service utilization, visit activities, and symptom burden as assessed using the Integrated Palliative Care Outcome Scale-Renal (IPOS-R), and patient satisfaction. Results: Among the 55 patients served, mean patient age was 72.0 years (standard deviation [SD] = 16.7), 95% had chronic kidney disease stage IV or V, and 46% had a Charlson Comorbidity Index >8. The mean IPOS-R score at initial visit was 16 (range = 0-60; SD = 9.1), with a mean of 7.5 (SD = 3.7) individual physical symptoms (range = 0-15) per patient. Eighty-seven percent of initial visits included an advance care planning conversation, 55.4% included a medication change for symptoms, and 35.5% included a dialysis decision-making conversation. Overall, 96% of patients who returned satisfaction surveys were satisfied with the care they received and viewed the KPC program positively. Conclusions: A model of care that integrates palliative care with nephrology care in the ambulatory setting serves high-risk patients with serious kidney disease. This KPC program can potentially meet documented gaps in care while achieving patient satisfaction. Early findings from this program evaluation indicate opportunities for enhanced patient-centered palliative nephrology care.
Distinct Stress Profiles Among Oncology Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy
Langford, D. J., Cooper, B., Paul, S., Humphreys, J., Hammer, M. J., Levine, J., Conley, Y. P., Wright, F., Dunn, L. B., & Miaskowski, C. (2020). Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 59(3), 646-657. 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2019.10.025
Context: Cancer and its treatment are inherently stressful and stress impacts important patient outcomes. Patients vary considerably in their response to stress. Understanding this variability requires a patient-centered multidimensional approach. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize patient subgroups with distinct multidimensional stress profiles (stress appraisal, exposure, and adaptation) during cancer treatment. Methods: Among 957 patients undergoing chemotherapy for breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer, latent profile analysis was performed to identify patient subgroups using concurrent evaluations of global (Perceived Stress Scale) and cancer-specific (Impact of Events Scale–Revised) stress, lifetime stress exposure (Life Stressor Checklist–Revised), and resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-10). Results: Three latent classes were identified: “Normative” (54.3%; intermediate global stress and resilience, lower cancer-related stress, lowest life stress); “Stressed” (39.9%; highest global and cancer-specific stress scores, lowest resilience, most life stress); and “Resilient” (5.7%; lowest global stress, cancer-specific stress comparable to Normative class, highest resilience, intermediate life stress). Characteristics that distinguished the Stressed from the Normative class included the following: younger age, female gender, lower socioeconomic status, unmarried/partnered, living alone, poorer functional status, and higher comorbidity burden. Compared to Stressed patients, Resilient patients were more likely to be partnered, to not live alone, and had a higher functional status. No demographic or clinical characteristics differentiated Normative from Resilient patients. Exposure to specific life stressors differed significantly among the classes. Conclusion: A subset of patients warrants intensive psychosocial intervention to reduce stress and improve adaptation to cancer. Intervention efforts may be informed by further study of Resilient patients.
Dominican Provider Attitudes Towards HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening and, Current Challenges to Cervical Cancer Prevention in the Dominican Republic: a Mixed Methods Study
Creating effective programs for cervical cancer prevention is essential to avoid premature deaths from cervical cancer. The Dominican Republic has persistently high rates of cervical cancer, despite the availability of Pap smear screening. This study explored Dominican provider attitudes towards human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and current challenges to effective cervical cancer prevention. In this Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)–driven mixed methods study, we conducted in-depth interviews (N = 21) and surveys (N = 202) with Dominican providers in Santo Domingo and Monte Plata provinces regarding their perspectives on barriers to cervical cancer prevention and their knowledge and attitudes towards HPV testing as an alternative to Pap smear. Providers believed the main barrier to cervical cancer prevention was lack of cervical cancer awareness and resulting inadequate population screening coverage. Providers felt that Pap smear was widely available to women in the Dominican Republic and were unsure how a change to HPV testing for screening would address gaps in current cervical cancer screening programs. A subset of providers felt HPV testing offered important advantages for early detection of cervical cancer and were in favor of more widespread use. Cost of the HPV test and target age for screening with HPV testing were the main barriers to acceptability. Providers had limited knowledge of HPV testing as a screening test. The group was divided in terms of the potential impact of a change in screening test in addressing barriers to cervical cancer prevention in the Dominican Republic. Findings may inform interventions to disseminate global evidence-based recommendations for cervical cancer screening.
Dominican Provider Practices for Cervical Cancer Screening in Santo Domingo and Monte Plata Provinces
Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death for women in the Dominican Republic. Pap smear screening in the Dominican Republic has not achieved adequate reduction in cervical cancer mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine Dominican provider practices for cervical cancer screening and the use of national or international screening guidelines. We surveyed 101 gynecology specialists, 50 non-specialists, and 51 obstetrics-gynecology residents in the Santo Domingo and Monte Plata provinces of the Dominican Republic regarding their cervical cancer screening practices and use of guidelines. Bivariate (chi-square) analyses were conducted to compare screening practices by demographic and practice characteristics. The majority of providers followed WHO guidelines (62.9%) and/or Dominican national norms (59.4%). The majority (87%) of providers use time since first sexual activity as the basis for screening initiation; 96% advise screening every 6–12 months. The most commonly used screening test is the conventional Pap smear. Colposcopy was recommended most often for all abnormal Pap results. Dominican providers report they follow national and/or international cervical cancer screening guidelines. They do not follow age-based screening guidelines, nor have they adopted an extended interval for screening and continue to recommend screening at least annually. A culture of early and frequent screening has consequences in terms of cost, high demand for follow-up services, and reduced capacity to reach the populations at highest risk. Early screening also may challenge the acceptability of adopting alternative screening technologies such as HPV testing.
Education, adult children's education, and depressive symptoms among older adults in rural China
This study examines whether children's education amplifies the effect of older adults' own education on their later life depressions in rural China. Data derives from six waves of panel data (2001, 2003 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2015) from the Longitudinal Study of Older Adults in Anhui Province, China. Random effect models showed that both older adults' own education and adult children's education had direct effects on depressive symptoms of older adults. Older adults' education influenced children's education, and in turn influenced intergenerational support from children, which consequently influenced depressive symptoms of older adults. Taken together, children's education amplifies the effect of older adults' own education on their depressive symptoms in rural China. This process increases health inequalities among older adults as a result of associated educational achievements in two generations. Educational policy should promote the equality of educational attainment of individuals in the future.
An Educational Intervention for Health Care Providers
Quinones, S. (2020). In , & , Ending the Physical Punishment of Children. American Psychological Association.
Effects of Care Arrangement on the Age of Institutionalization among Community-dwelling Chinese Older Adults
Early and unnecessary institutionalization of older adults can be a heavy burden on the country and taxpayers. It is crucial to understand factors impacting the age of institutionalization of older adults in China. This study examined care arrangements of older adults in China and the relationship between these arrangements and the age of relocation to long-term care facilities (institutionalization). Results show that care arrangements affect the age of institutionalization among community-dwelling Chinese older adults. Those who were primarily cared for by sons and daughter-in-laws tended to be institutionalized at a significantly later age compared to those who were cared for by their spouses. Those who were primarily cared for by other relatives and friends, by domestic helpers, and those with no caregivers tended to have significantly earlier institutionalization compared to those who were cared for by their spouses. However, the number of older adults living in empty nest families is increasing rapidly. Traditional family support for older adults has been shrinking due to fewer children, out-migration of adult children from rural to urban areas, and increased employment of women in China. There is an acute shortage of competent and qualified elder care workers. Most Chinese domestic helpers started their work with limited or even no training, risking the safety of themselves and their employers. In addition to increasing and optimizing the investment in the elder care industry, legal protection and policy support for the elderly and domestic helpers are urgently needed to address these key issues.
Efficacy of a sleep health intervention to optimize standard smoking cessation treatment response: Results from a pilot randomized controlled trial
BackgroundWe tested if an adjunctive sleep health (SH) intervention improved smoking cessation treatment response by increasing quit rates. We also examined if baseline sleep, and improvements in sleep in the first weeks of quitting, were associated with quitting at the end of treatment.MethodsTreatment-seeking smokers (N = 29) aged 21-65 years were randomized to a SH intervention (n = 16), or general health (GH) control (n = 13) condition. Participants received six counseling sessions across 15-weeks: SH received smoking cessation + SH counseling; GH received smoking cessation + GH counseling. Counseling began 4-weeks before the target quit date (TQD), and varenicline treatment began 1-week prior to TQD. Smoking status and SH were assessed at baseline (week 1), TQD (week 4), 3 weeks after cessation (week 7), week 12, and at the end of treatment (EOT; week 15).ResultsSH versus GH participants had higher Carbon Monoxide (CO) -verified, 7-day point prevalence abstinence at EOT (69% vs. 54%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-10.69, P = 0.77). Higher baseline sleep efficiency (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.03-1.96, P = 0.03), predicted higher EOT cessation. Models were adjusted for age, sex, education, and baseline nicotine dependence.ConclusionsImproving SH in treatment-seeking smokers prior to cessation warrants further examination as a viable strategy to promote cessation.
Enriching Nutrition Programs to Better Serve the Needs of a Diversifying Aging Population
Racial minorities experience a high burden of food insecurity relative to non-Hispanic whites. Government-subsidized nutrition programs can positively impact food insecurity and nutritional risk among older adults. Yet, in New York City, where nearly 60% of people over 65 years are non-white, older minorities participate in government nutrition programs at very low rates. In this commentary, we focus on 2 programs: the Child and Adult Care Food Program and Older Americans Act Nutrition Services Programs. We identify opportunities for strengthening these programs to improve their reach and engagement with diverse older adults in New York City and similarly diverse urban communities.
Extended afternoon naps are associated with hypertension in women but not in men
Background: The impact of afternoon napping duration on the risk of hypertension has not been well established, particularly with regards to sex and age differences. Objective: To examine the association between afternoon napping duration and hypertension stratified by sex and age among Chinese adults over 45 years of age. Methods: The 2011–2012 survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) was used, including 7,980 participants. We conducted logistic regression models in the overall sample, and then stratified by sex and age groups. Results: Middle-aged and older women who napped over 90 min were 39% and 54% more likely to have hypertension, respectively; however, the associations were not significant in middle-aged and older men. Conclusion: Extended afternoon napping (≥90 min) was associated with hypertension in both the middle-aged women and older women but not in men. Future studies are needed to further examine the association and possible mechanisms.
Facilitating Active Learning and Critical Thinking in Large Classrooms Utilizing Collaborative Learning and Technology
Nelson, N. (2020). In , & , Innovative strategies in teaching nursing: Exemplars of optimal learning outcomes. Springer.