An Adapted Conceptual Model Integrating Palliative Care in Serious Illness and Multiple Chronic Conditions
Objective: Seriously ill adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC) who receive palliative care may benefit from improved symptom burden, health care utilization and cost, caregiver stress, and quality of life. To guide research involving serious illness and MCC, palliative care can be integrated into a conceptual model to develop future research studies to improve care strategies and outcomes in this population. Methods: The adapted conceptual model was developed based on a thorough review of the literature, in which current evidence and conceptual models related to serious illness, MCC, and palliative care were appraised. Factors contributing to patients’ needs, services received, and service-related variables were identified. Relevant patient outcomes and evidence gaps are also highlighted. Results: Fifty-eight articles were synthesized to inform the development of an adapted conceptual model including serious illness, MCC, and palliative care. Concepts were organized into 4 main conceptual groups, including Factors Affecting Needs (sociodemographic and social determinants of health), Factors Affecting Services Received (health system; research, evidence base, dissemination, and health policy; community resources), Service-Related Variables (patient visits, service mix, quality of care, patient information, experience), and Outcomes (symptom burden, quality of life, function, advance care planning, goal-concordant care, utilization, cost, death, site of death, satisfaction). Discussion: The adapted conceptual model integrates palliative care with serious illness and multiple chronic conditions. The model is intended to guide the development of research studies involving seriously ill adults with MCC and aid researchers in addressing relevant evidence gaps.
Addressing burnout syndrome from a critical care specialty organization perspective
Background: Health care specialty organizations are an important resource for their membership; however, it is not clear how specialty societies should approach combating stress and burnout on an organizational scale. Objective:To understand the prevalence of burnout syndrome in AmericanThoracic Society members, identify specialty-specific risk factors, and generate strategies for health care societies to combat burnout. Methods: Cross-sectional, mixed-methods survey in a sample of 2018 AmericanThoracic Society International Conference attendees to assess levels of burnout syndrome, work satisfaction, and stress. Results: Of the 130 respondents, 69% reported high stress, 38% met burnout criteria, and 20% confirmed chaotic work environments. Significant associations included sex and stress level; clinical time and at-home electronic health record work; and US practice and at-home electronic health record work. There were no significant associations between burnout syndrome and the selected demographics. Participants indicated patient care as the most meaningful aspect of work, whereas the highest contributors to burnout were workload and electronic health record documentation. Importantly, most respondents were unaware of available resources for burnout. Conclusions: Health care specialty societies have access to each level of the health system, creating an opportunity to monitor trends, disseminate resources, and influence the direction of efforts to reduce workplace stress and enhance clinician well-being.
Adherence Self-Management and the Influence of Contextual Factors Among Emerging Adults With Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Dunn Navarra, A. M., Whittemore, R., Bakken, S., Rosenberg, M. J., Gormley, M., Bethea, J., Gwadz, M., Cleland, C., Liang, E., & D’Eramo Melkus, G. (2020). Nursing Research, 69(3), 197-209. 10.1097/NNR.0000000000000422
BACKGROUND: Maintaining adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a significant challenge for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected racial and ethnic minority adolescents and young adults (youth). Given the consequences of suboptimal ART adherence, there is a pressing need for an expanded understanding of adherence behavior in this cohort. OBJECTIVES: As part of an exploratory sequential, mixed-methods study, we used qualitative inquiry to explore adherence information, motivation, and behavioral skills among HIV-infected racial and ethnic minority youth. Our secondary aim was to gain an understanding of the contextual factors surrounding adherence behavior. METHODS: The information-motivation-behavioral skills model (IMB model) was applied to identify the conceptual determinants of adherence behavior in our target population, along with attention to emergent themes. In-depth, individual, semistructured interviews, including open-ended questions with probes, were conducted with a convenience sample of HIV-infected racial and ethnic minority youth (ages 16-29 years), receiving ART and with evidence of virologic failure (i.e., detectable HIV viral load). New participants were interviewed until information redundancy was reached. Qualitative interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Atlas.ti (v8). Directed content analysis was performed to generate categories and broad themes. Coding was initially conceptually driven (IMB model) and shifted to a data-driven approach, allowing for the discovery of key contextual factors that influence adherence behavior in this population. Methodological rigor was ensured by member checks, an audit trail, thick descriptive data, and triangulation of data sources. RESULTS: Twenty racial and ethnic minority participants (mean age = 24.3 years, 55.0% male) completed interviews. We found adherence information was understood in relation to HIV biomarkers; adherence motivation and behavioral skills were influenced by stigma and social context. We identified five primary themes regarding ART self-management: (a) emerging adulthood with a chronic illness, (b) stigma and disclosure concerns, (c) support systems and support deficits, (d) mental and behavioral health risks and challenges, and (e) mode of HIV transmission and perceptions of power and control. DISCUSSION: Key constructs of the IMB model were applicable to participating HIV-infected youth yet did not fully explain the essence of adherence behavior. As such, we recommend expansion of current adherence models and frameworks to include known contextual factors associated with ART self-management among HIV-infected racial and ethnic minority youth.
Advance Care Planning Engagement and End-of-life Preference Among Older Chinese Americans: Do Family Relationships and Immigrant Status Matter?
Objectives: To examine how immigrant status and family relationships are associated with advance care planning (ACP) engagement and end-of-life (EOL) preference in burial planning among older Chinese Americans, the largest subgroup of Asian Americans. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Communities in Honolulu, Hawai'i. Participants: Participants were 430 older Chinese Americans aged 55 years and older. Measures: Measures included ACP contemplation, ACP discussion, and EOL preference in burial planning, immigrant status, family cohesion, family conflict, demographic information, and health status. Results: Results show that in comparison to foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans were more likely to have ACP contemplation [odds ratio (OR) 2.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-5.63], ACP discussion (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.50-6.08), and preferences for burial plans at the end of life (OR 4.56, 95% CI 2.04-10.18). Family conflict increased the possibility of having ACP contemplation (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.38), ACP discussion (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07-1.39), and EOL preference in burial planning (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.42), whereas family cohesion was not associated with these study outcomes. Conclusions and Implications: This study suggests that ACP should be adapted to be more culturally appropriate, especially in a time of coronavirus and xenophobia, such as framing ACP as a tool to help families reduce stress while fulfilling filial obligations, in order to ensure equitable access to ACP.
Alterations in Patterns of Gene Expression and Perturbed Pathways in the Gut-Brain Axis Are Associated With Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea
Singh, K. P., Dhruva, A., Flowers, E., Paul, S. M., Hammer, M. J., Wright, F., Cartwright, F., Conley, Y. P., Melisko, M., Levine, J. D., Miaskowski, C., & Kober, K. M. (2020). Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 59(6), 1248-1259.e5. 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2019.12.352
Context: Despite current advances in antiemetic treatments, approximately 50% of oncology patients experience chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate for differentially expressed genes and perturbed pathways associated with the gut-brain axis (GBA) across two independent samples of oncology patients who did and did not experience CIN. Methods: Oncology patients (n = 735) completed study questionnaires in the week before their second or third cycle of chemotherapy. CIN occurrence was assessed using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Gene expression analyses were performed in two independent samples using ribonucleic acid sequencing (Sample 1, n = 357) and microarray (Sample 2, n = 352) methodologies. Fisher's combined probability method was used to determine genes that were differentially expressed and pathways that were perturbed between the two nausea groups across both samples. Results: CIN was reported by 63.6% of the patients in Sample 1 and 48.9% of the patients in Sample 2. Across the two samples, 703 genes were differentially expressed, and 37 pathways were found to be perturbed between the two CIN groups. We identified nine perturbed pathways that are involved in mechanisms associated with alterations in the GBA (i.e., mucosal inflammation, disruption of gut microbiome). Conclusion: Persistent CIN remains a significant clinical problem. Our study is the first to identify novel GBA-related pathways associated with the occurrence of CIN. Our findings warrant confirmation and suggest directions for future clinical studies to decrease CIN occurrence.
Anxiety about aging, resilience and health Status among Chinese older adults: Findings from Honolulu and Wuhan
A growing body of literature found that anxiety about aging is related to health and well-being of older adults. However, very few studies have been conducted on Chinese older adults residing in different countries and examined the role of resilience. Using the Pearlin's Stress Process Model, this study aims to fill in this gap by examining the relationship between anxiety about aging as the stressor and health status among Chinese older adults living in Honolulu, the United States (N = 292) and Wuhan, China (N = 532). The survey data were collected through June 2017 to September 2018, using snowball and convenience sampling strategy. The moderating role of resilience on the focal relationship is also explored. Results showed that for both samples, the negative relationship between anxiety about aging and self-rated health was significantly moderated by resilience (18 % and 13 %, respectively), implying the stress-buffering role of resilience. Although both mean levels of resilience and anxiety about aging were lower for the Honolulu sample, the moderating effect appeared to be stronger, implying that older adults in the Honolulu sample might rely more on psychological resources such as resilience in coping with stressors, compared with their counterparts in Wuhan. However, the moderating effect of resilience did not work for the association between anxiety about aging and number of chronic conditions for both samples. Our findings suggest that future research needs to take into account both social and psychological resources when examining anxiety about aging and health status among Chinese older adults residing in different cultural contexts.
Anxious, Depressed, and Planning for the Future: Advance Care Planning in Diverse Older Adults
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether depression and anxiety are associated with advance care planning (ACP) engagement or values concerning future medical care. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. PARTICIPANTS: English- and Spanish-speaking patients, aged 55 years and older, from a San Francisco, CA, county hospital. MEASURES: Depression was measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire 8-item scale, and anxiety was measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale, using standardized cutoffs of 10 or more for moderate-to-severe symptoms. ACP engagement was measured using validated surveys of ACP behavior change (e.g., self-efficacy and readiness; mean five-point Likert score) and ACP actions (e.g., ask, discuss, and document wishes; 0- to 25-point scale), with higher scores representing higher engagement. In addition, we asked a question about valuing life extension (“some health situations would make life not worth living”). We used adjusted linear and logistic regression. RESULTS: Mean age of 986 participants was 63 years, 81% were non-White, 39% had limited health literacy, 45% were Spanish speaking, 13% had depression, and 10% had anxiety. After adjustment for demographic and health status variables, participants who were depressed versus not depressed had higher ACP behavior change scores (0.2 points; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.06–0.38; P =.007), higher ACP action scores (1.5 points; 95% CI = 0.51–2.57; P =.003), and higher odds of not valuing life extension (odds ratio (OR) = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.5–4.3; P <.001). Results were similar in participants with versus without anxiety (ACP behavior change: 0.2 points; 95% CI = 0.05–0.40; P =.01; ACP action scores: 1.2 points; 95% CI = 0.14–2.32; P =.028; odds of not valuing life extension: OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3–3.9; P =.004). CONCLUSION: Depression and anxiety were associated with greater ACP engagement and not valuing life extension. Although the direction of association between ACP engagement and values with anxiety and depression cannot be determined in this cross-sectional study, these conditions may influence ACP preferences. Future studies should assess whether changes in anxiety or depression affect ACP preferences over time.
Assessing providers’ approach to hypertension management at a large, private hospital in Kampala, Uganda
Background: Hypertension is increasingly prevalent in Uganda and its clinical management remains subop-timal across the country. Prior research has elucidated some of the factors contributing to poor control, but little is known about providers’ approaches to hypertension management and perceptions of barriers to care. This is particularly true in private health care settings – despite the fact that the private sector provides a substantial and growing portion of health care in Uganda. Objective: Our exploratory, pragmatic qualitative study aimed to examine the factors affecting the quality of hypertension care from the perspective of providers working in an urban, private hospital in Uganda. We focused on the organizational and system-level factors influencing providers’ approaches to management in the outpatient setting. Methods: We conducted interviews with 19 health care providers working in the outpatient setting of a 110-bed, private urban hospital in Kampala, Uganda. We then coded the interviews for thematic analysis, using an inductive approach to generate the study’s findings. Findings: Several themes emerged around perceived barriers and facilitators to care. Providers cited patient beliefs and behaviors, driven in part by cultural norms, as key challenges to hypertension control; however, most felt their own approach to hypertension treatment aligned with international guidelines. Providers struggled to collaborate with colleagues in coordinating the joint management of patients. Furthermore, they cited the high cost and limited availability of medication as barriers. Conclusions: These findings offer important strategic direction for intervention development specific to this Ugandan context: for example, regarding culturally-adapted patient education initiatives, or programs to improve access to essential medications. Other settings facing similar challenges scaling up management of hypertension may find the results useful for informing intervention development as well.
Assessment and Management of HIV Distal Sensory Peripheral Neuropathy: Understanding the Symptoms
Distal sensory peripheral neuropathy (HIV-DSP) affects upwards of 50% of people living with HIV. Causing often debilitating symptoms of tingling, numbness, and burning, HIV-DSP can result in disability, unemployment, and low quality of life. Comorbidities further complicate nursing care, heightening risk of polypharmacy and symptom exacerbation. Therefore, a neurologic sensory assessment, combined with the patient's self-report of symptoms, can help nurse practitioners visualize, quantify, and understand symptoms. Common pharmacologic interventions include antiepileptics, antidepressants, analgesics, and medical marijuana. The complexity of care for individuals with HIV-DSP merits a comprehensive approach. Implications for practice include interdisciplinary management with neurologists, podiatrists, mental health providers, and nurse-led counseling inclusive of patient safety teaching.
Association between childhood conditions and arthritis among middle-aged and older adults in China: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal StudyAbstract
This study examined the association between childhood conditions and arthritis among middle-aged and older adults in China. The data were derived from the 2015 wave and the life-history module of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with respondents age 45 and over across China. Multiple imputation was used to handle the missing data, generating a final analytic sample of 19,800. Doctor-diagnosed arthritis was the main outcome variable. Random-effects logistic regression models were used to test the proposed models. Approximately 8 per cent of the respondents had better family financial status in childhood than their neighbours. Close to 8 per cent had been hospitalised or encountered similar conditions (e.g. confined to bed or home) for at least one month in childhood. Around one-third reported better subjective health in childhood than their peers. The majority of the respondents (80%) reported that they had stable health resources, and that their mothers were illiterate during their childhood. Childhood family financial status, subjective health, mother's education, access to health care and medical catastrophic events were found to be significant factors associated with arthritis in later life, after controlling for adulthood and older-age conditions (family financial status: odds ratio (OR) = 0.885, 95 per cent confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.848-0.924; subjective health: OR = 0.924, 95% CI = 0.889-0.960; mother's education: OR = 0.863, 95% CI = 0.750-0.992; access to health care: OR = 0.729, 95% CI = 0.552-0.964; medical catastrophic events: OR = 1.266, 95% CI = 1.108-1.446). The study results highlight an important role that childhood conditions play in affecting the onset of arthritis in late life in China. Health-care providers may consider childhood conditions as a valuable screening criterion to identify risk populations, which could be used to guide health promotion and prevention programmes, and promote healthy ageing.
Association Between Early Cognitive Impairment and Midterm Functional Outcomes Among Chinese Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients: A Longitudinal Study
Background: Cognitive decline is common after stroke. The influence of early cognitive impairment on midterm functional outcomes among Chinese acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients has not been fully studied. The aim of the study was to assess the association between early cognitive impairment and midterm functional outcomes among Chinese AIS patients. Methods: A longitudinal survey focusing on Chinese AIS patients was conducted in three stroke centers in Shanghai, China (July to December 2016). A total of 185 eligible patients were interviewed at acute stage and at 1, 3, and 6 months after onset. Patients' functional outcomes were measured by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel Index (BI) at each time point. Cognitive function was assessed using Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Changsha version (MoCA-CS), within 7 days after stroke onset. Covariates included patient's demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, clinical characteristics of stroke, vascular risk factors, receiving rehabilitation after discharge from acute hospital, and recurrence. Generalized linear mixed models and general linear mixed models were applied. Results: The prevalence of cognitive impairment at acute stage of stroke among these patients was 88.1%. The risk of disability (mRS 2–5) of all patients after stroke decreased over time (OR = 0.491, 95% CI = 0.401–0.603). The risk of disability among those with cognitive impairment increased compared with those with normal cognition (OR = 7.384, 95% CI = 1.041–52.407). The BI score of all patients increased over time after controlling for covariates (β = 1.51, p < 0.01). The BI score of those with cognitive impairment was lower than that with normal cognition over the follow-up period after controlling for other covariates (β = −8.11, p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study showed that early cognitive impairment was associated with higher risk of disability and poor activity of daily living (ADL) among Chinese AIS patients. Further studies are needed to examine the linkage between multi-domain cognitive impairment and long-term disability and ADL among stroke survivors by using neuropsychological test batteries.
Association of Diabetes and Other Clinical and Sociodemographic Factors with Guideline-concordant Breast Cancer Treatment for Breast Cancer
Gold, H. T., Shao, H., Oratz, R., Yu, O., Hammer, M., Richardson, S., & Boudreau, D. (2020). American Journal of Clinical Oncology: Cancer Clinical Trials, 43(2), 101-106. 10.1097/COC.0000000000000638
Background:Women with breast cancer have worse health outcomes with co-occurring type 2 diabetes, possibly due to suboptimal breast cancer treatment.Methods:We created a cohort of women ages 66 to 85 y with stage I to III breast cancer from 1993 to 2012 from an integrated health care delivery system (n=1612) and fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries (n=98,915), linked to Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data (total n=100,527). We evaluated associations between type 2 diabetes and other factors with undergoing guideline-concordant cancer treatment. We estimated χ2 tests for univariate analysis and relative risks (RRs) using multivariable log-binomial models for outcomes of (1) overall guideline-concordant treatment, (2) definitive surgical therapy (mastectomy or lumpectomy with radiation), (3) chemotherapy if indicated, and (4) endocrine therapy.Results:Our cohort included 60% of subjects with stage 1 tumors, one quarter below 70 years old, 23% had diabetes, 35% underwent overall guideline-concordant treatment, 24% chemotherapy, and 83% endocrine therapy. Women with diabetes were less likely to undergo overall guideline-concordant treatment (RR: 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.94-0.98), and only slightly less likely to undergo guideline-concordant definitive surgical therapy (RR: 0.99; 95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.00). No differences were found for chemotherapy or endocrine therapy. Other factors significantly associated with a lower risk of guideline-concordant care were cancer stages II to III (vs. I; RR=0.47-0.69, P<0.0001), older age (vs. 66 to 69 y; RR=0.56-0.90, P<0.0001), higher comorbidity burden, and Medicaid dual-eligibility.Conclusions:Diabetes was associated with lower adherence to overall guideline-concordant breast cancer treatment. However, higher stage, older age, higher comorbidity burden, and Medicaid insurance were more strongly associated with lower use of guideline-concordant treatment. Given the heavy burden of breast cancer and diabetes, long-term outcomes analysis should consider guideline-concordant treatment.Impact:Other factors besides diabetes are more strongly associated with guideline-concordant breast cancer treatment.
Association of HLA Genotype With T-Cell Activation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Women
Kovacs, A. A., Kono, N., Wang, C. H., Wang, D., Frederick, T., Operskalski, E., Tien, P. C., French, A. L., Minkoff, H., Kassaye, S., T. Golub, E., Aouizerat, B. E., Kuniholm, M. H., & Millstein, J. (2020). The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 221(7), 1156-1166. 10.1093/infdis/jiz589
BACKGROUND: Global immune activation and HLA alleles are each associated with the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus . METHODS: We evaluated the relationship between 44 HLA class I and 28 class II alleles and percentages of activated CD8 (CD8+CD38+DR+) and CD4 (CD4+CD38+DR+) T cells in 586 women who were naive to highly active antiretroviral therapy. We used linear generalized estimating equation regression models, adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, HIV load, and hepatitis C virus infection and controlling for multiplicity using a false discovery rate threshold of 0.10. RESULTS: Ten HLA alleles were associated with CD8 and/or CD4 T-cell activation. Lower percentages of activated CD8 and/or CD4 T cells were associated with protective alleles B*57:03 (CD8 T cells, -6.6% [P = .002]; CD4 T cells, -2.7% [P = .007]), C*18:01 (CD8 T cells, -6.6%; P < .0008) and DRB1*13:01 (CD4 T cells, -2.7%; P < .0004), and higher percentages were found with B*18:01 (CD8 T cells, 6.2%; P < .0003), a detrimental allele. Other alleles/allele groups associated with activation included C*12:03, group DQA1*01:00, DQB1*03:01, DQB1*03:02, DQB1*06:02, and DQB1*06:03. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that a person's HLA type may play a role in modulating T-cell activation independent of viral load and sheds light on the relationship between HLA, T-cell activation, immune control, and HIV pathogenesis.
Association of personality profiles with coping and adjustment to cancer among patients undergoing chemotherapy
Langford, D. J., Morgan, S., Cooper, B., Paul, S., Kober, K., Wright, F., Hammer, M. J., Conley, Y. P., Levine, J. D., Miaskowski, C., & Dunn, L. B. (2020). Psycho-Oncology, 29(6), 1060-1067. 10.1002/pon.5377
Objective: Specific personality traits are associated with differential use of various coping strategies. Few studies have examined the relationship between personality and coping in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. We, therefore, examined the relationship between previously identified personality profiles (ie, Distressed [14.3% of total sample], Normative [53.8%], Resilient [31.9%]) and measures of coping and adjustment. Methods: Patients (n = 1248) undergoing chemotherapy for breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer completed measures of personality (NEO-Five Factor Inventory), coping (Brief COPE), and psychological adjustment to cancer (Mental Adjustment to Cancer [MAC] scale). Differences in coping and adjustment among the three personality profiles were evaluated using analysis of variance. Results: On the Brief COPE, the Distressed class endorsed lower use of Active Coping, Positive Reframing, Acceptance, Emotional Support (ie, “engagement” coping); and greater use of Denial, Venting, Behavioral Disengagement, Self-Blame (ie, “disengagement” coping) compared to the Normative and Resilient classes. On the MAC scale, the Distressed class scored higher on Anxious Preoccupation, Helplessness/Hopelessness, Fatalism, and Avoidance, and lower on Fighting Spirit, compared to the other two classes. Conclusions: In this sample of oncology patients receiving chemotherapy, patients in the Distressed personality class showed a reduced repertoire of adaptive coping strategies, while those in the Resilient class reported greater use of adaptive or engagement coping strategies. Further work should examine the potential mediating or moderating role of coping and adjustment in the relationships between personality and patient outcomes. Interventions to enhance beneficial and reduce harmful coping strategies in cancer patients should be evaluated.
Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in the Dominican Republic: Perspectives of Focus Group Participants in the Santo Domingo Area
Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the Dominican Republic, and high rates persist despite existing Pap smear screening programs. The purpose of this study was to explore Dominican women’s knowledge and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening practices, and perceived barriers and facilitators to early detection of cervical cancer. Method: Six focus groups (N = 64) were conducted in Spanish in urban, suburban, and rural locations, in private and public school settings, community and workplace settings, in or near Santo Domingo, as part of a larger study on barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccine implementation. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and translated from Spanish to English. Qualitative data analysis used inductive and deductive approaches. Results: Knowledge regarding HPV and cervical cancer varied across groups, but all agreed there was significant stigma and fear regarding HPV. Most women reported having Pap screening at least yearly. Follow-up of abnormal Pap testing was less consistent, with cost and uncertainty about provider recommendations identified as barriers. Discussion: Broader examination of provider-level and health system barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer prevention in the Dominican Republic is essential, in order to inform interventions to improve the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening and treatment programs and reduce preventable deaths.
Book review: Not What the Doctor Ordered (3rd Ed.) by Jeffrey C. Bauer
Building a National Program for Pilot Studies of Embedded Pragmatic Clinical Trials in Dementia Care
Brody, A. A., Barnes, D. E., Chodosh, J., Galvin, J. E., Hepburn, K. W., Troxel, A. B., Hom, K., McCarthy, E. P., & Unroe, K. T. (2020). Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 68, S14-S20. 10.1111/jgs.16618
Sixteen million caregivers currently provide care to more than 5 million persons living with dementia (PLWD) in the United States. Although this population is growing and highly complex, evidence-based management remains poorly integrated within healthcare systems. Therefore, the National Institute on Aging IMPACT Collaboratory was formed to build the nation's ability to conduct embedded pragmatic clinical trials (ePCTs) for PLWD and their caregivers. The pilot core of the IMPACT Collaboratory seeks to provide funds for upward of 40 pilots for ePCTs to accelerate the testing of nonpharmacologic interventions with the goal that these pilots lead to full-scale ePCTs and eventually the embedding of evidence-based care into healthcare systems. The first two challenges for the pilot core in building the pilot study program were (1) to develop a transparent, ethical, and open nationwide process for soliciting, reviewing, and selecting pilot studies; and (2) to begin the process of describing the necessary components of a pilot study for an ePCT. During our initial funding cycle, we received 35 letters of intent, of which 17 were accepted for a full proposal and 14 were submitted. From this process we learned that investigators lack knowledge in ePCTs, many interventions lack readiness for an ePCT pilot study, and many proposed studies lack key pragmatic design elements. We therefore have set three key criteria that future pilot studies must meet at a minimum to be considered viable. We additionally discuss key design decisions investigators should consider in designing a pilot study for an ePCT. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:S14–S20, 2020.
Building a Safe and Healthy America: Eliminating Corporal Punishment via Positive Parenting
Hornor, G., Quinones, S. G., Boudreaux, D., Bretl, D., Chapman, E., Chiocca, E. M., Donnell, C., Herendeen, P., Kahn, D., Loyke, J., Morris, K. A., Mulvaney, B., Perks, D. H., Terreros, A., & VanGraafeiland, B. (2020). Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 34(2), 136-144. 10.1016/j.pedhc.2019.09.008
Abstract corporal punishment (CP) is associated with negative short-term and long-term children outcomes. However, many caregivers continue to administer spankings and other forms of CP. Pediatric nurse practitioners are in a unique position to affect change in parental behavior related to CP use and other parenting practices. This article will summarize the research on the dangers of CP and the corresponding benefits of positive parenting. It defines positive parenting and offers resources pediatric health care providers, including pediatric nurse practitioners, can use to educate both themselves and caregivers about specific discipline techniques appropriate to each developmental stage. Finally, it suggests practice strategies pediatric nurse practitioners can use to help caregivers replace CP and other harsh parenting practices with positive parenting to build a safe and healthy America.
Bundling Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Testing to Increase Receipt of Test Results: A Randomized Trial
Background: The overlapping human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics disproportionately affect people with substance use disorders. However, many people who use substances remain unaware of their infection(s). Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of an on-site bundled rapid HIV and HCV testing strategy in increasing receipt of both HIV and HCV test results. Research Design: Two-armed randomized controlled trial in substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDTP) in New York City. Participants in the treatment arm were offered bundled rapid HIV and HCV tests with immediate results on-site. Participants in the control arm were offered the standard of care, that is, referrals to onsite or off-site laboratory-based HIV and HCV testing with delayed results. Participants: A total of 162 clients with unknown or negative HIV and HCV status. Measures: The primary outcome was the percentage of participants with self-reported receipt of HIV and HCV test results at 1-month postrandomization. Results: Over half of participants were Hispanic (51.2%), with 25.3% being non-Hispanic black and 17.9% non-Hispanic white. Two thirds were male, and 54.9% reported injection as method of drug use. One hundred thirty-four participants (82.7%) completed the 1-month assessment. Participants in the treatment arm were more likely to report having received both test results than those in the control arm (69% vs. 19%, P< 0.001). Seven participants in the treatment arm received a preliminary new HCV diagnosis, versus 1 in the control arm (P= 0.029). Conclusion: Offering bundled rapid HIV and HCV testing with immediate results on-site in SUDTPs may increase awareness of HIV and HCV infection among people with substance use disorders.
Buprenorphine Induction Simulation: Focus on Patient Safety and Quality Care
Background: Provider education for medication-assisted treatment (MAT) primarily relies on didactic instruction. Clinical simulation that enhances the ability of advanced practice nurses (APRNs) is needed to effectively and safely implement MAT. Method: We developed and conducted a pilot study of a MAT clinical simulation designed to enhance patient safety and increase MAT competency. Results: Clinical simulation improved APRN preparedness to effectively implement MAT. In addition, students indicated increased self-efficacy and better understanding of patient safety. Conclusions: Clinical simulation is an innovative way to teach APRN students to effectively implement buprenorphine treatment while ensuring patient safety.
The CCRN® Certification: Why It Matters?
CE: The Effects of Smoking on Bone Health and Healing
The number of orthopedic surgeries performed in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The most recent data available from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality indicate that five of the 10 operative procedures most commonly performed during inpatient stays involve the musculoskeletal system. Cigarette smoking is one of the most prevalent and preventable risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and orthopedic surgery complications. This article discusses the effects of smoking on bone health, the importance of smoking cessation among patients scheduled for or recovering from orthopedic surgery, and the vital role nurses play in supporting patient efforts to lead a tobacco-free life.
Characterizing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption for US Children and Adolescents by Race/Ethnicity
OBJECTIVES: To examine racial/ethnic differences in type of SSB most frequently consumed and in correlates of youth sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake.METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011-2016, for children and adolescents aged 5-17 years (n = 6507). The main outcome was SSB consumption (i.e., sodas, sweetened fruit drinks, nectars, sports and energy drinks, sweetened coffees and teas, enhanced waters). Mean and proportions of SSB intake were estimated accounting for complex sampling strategy and weighting. Multivariable regression models were developed for each race/ethnicity and age group.RESULTS: Two-thirds of children and adolescents reported consuming SSB on a given day. Among consumers, mean SSB consumption was greatest for Black children and White adolescents and lowest for Asian American children and adolescents. The most popular type of SSB consumed was sweetened fruit drinks among children and soda among adolescents, except among White and Mexican American children for whom soda and Black adolescents for whom sweetened fruit drinks were most popular. Female sex and water intake were negatively associated with SSB consumption across most races/ethnicities. Screen time, dentist visits, nativity, and guardian education were associated with SSB intake among a subset of races/ethnicities.CONCLUSIONS: Associations between covariates and SSB intake as well as types of beverages preferred vary by race/ethnicity, as such chronic disease policies should not be 'one size fits all'. Targeted interventions for specific groups of vulnerable youths hold promise for further reducing SSB consumption, including directing efforts towards reducing sweetened fruit drinks for Black children.
Co-occurrence of decrements in physical and cognitive function is common in older oncology patients receiving chemotherapy
Utne, I., Cooper, B. A., Ritchie, C., Wong, M., Dunn, L. B., Loyland, B., Grov, E. K., Hammer, M. J., Paul, S. M., Levine, J. D., Conley, Y. P., Kober, K. M., & Miaskowski, C. (2020). European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 48. 10.1016/j.ejon.2020.101823
Purpose: Older adults receiving cancer chemotherapy are at increased risk for decrements in physical (PF) and cognitive (CF) function. Objectives: Study identified subgroups of patients with distinct PF and CF profiles; risk factors associated with subgroup membership; and impact of subgroup membership on quality of life (QOL). Methods: In 366 older oncology patients, PF and CF were assessed using the Physical Component Summary (PCS) of the SF-12 and Attentional Function Index, respectively. Latent profile analysis was used to identify subgroups of older patients with distinct PF/CF profiles. Results: Three distinct PF/CF profiles were identified (i.e., Very Low PF + Moderate CF (15.6%); Low PF + Low CF (39.3%), Normal PF + Normal CF (45.1%)). Compared to the both Normal class, patients in the other two classes had a lower functional status, a worse comorbidity profile, and were less likely to exercise on a regular basis. Compared to the Both Normal class, patients in the Both Low class were less likely to be married/partnered, more likely to live alone, less likely to be employed, and more likely to report depression and back pain. Compared to the other two classes, patients in the Both Low class had a lower annual household income and were receiving chemotherapy with a worse toxicity profile. Conclusion: First study to use a person-centered analytic approach to identify subgroups of older adults with distinct PF/CF profiles. Fifty-five percent of the older adults had statistically significant and clinically meaningful decrements in both PF AND CF that had negative effects on all aspects of QOL.
Community Acquired Pneumonia
Taub, L.-F., & Pasklinsky, N. (2020). In , & , Clinical Simulations for the Advanced Practice Nurse. Springer.