Publications

Publications

An additional 1,440 minutes: What will you do with an extra day?

Newland, J. A. (2024). Nurse Practitioner, 49(2), 4. 10.1097/01.NPR.0000000000000142

Addressing School Connectedness, Belonging, and Culturally Appropriate Care for Newly Immigrated Students and Families

McCabe, E., Kaskoun, J., Bennett, S., Meadows-Oliver, M., & Schroeder, K. (2024). Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 38(2), 233-239. 10.1016/j.pedhc.2023.10.001
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School connectedness is the degree to which students experience acceptance, inclusion, and care by school personnel and peers. A sense of belonging incorporates an emotional connection to the community. School connectedness and belonging are protective factors that promote student engagement, accomplishment, and community performance. Despite the rise in students from immigrant families in the United States, belonging and connectedness for youth from diverse cultural and linguistic experiences are understudied. School-based nurses, our term, is inclusive of advanced practice pediatric, family, and psychiatric nurse practitioners, are well-positioned to support school connectedness for youth who may encounter hurdles to health care because of cultural and linguistic differences. We present practice suggestions for language, culture, and inclusion using three health conditions experienced by youth: anxiety, asthma, and obesity. School-based nurses and other school personnel who provide linguistic and culturally appropriate care can support students in feeling connected and included in their school communities.

The Association Between Trajectories of Perceived Unmet Needs for Home and Community-Based Services and Life Satisfaction Among Chinese Older Adults: The Moderating Effect of Psychological Resilience

Wang, H., Liu, H., Wu, B., & Hai, L. (2024). Research on Aging, 46(2), 139-152. 10.1177/01640275231203608
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This study examined whether trajectories of perceived unmet needs for Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS) were associated with life satisfaction among Chinese older adults and whether the association was moderated by psychological resilience. Data came from five waves (2005-2018) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Latent class growth analysis revealed three distinct trajectories of perceived unmet HCBS needs: “increasing” (n = 977, 36.24%), “persistent” (n = 570, 21.14%), and “decreasing” (n = 1149, 42.62%). Multiple regression estimates showed that the increasing group was associated with lower life satisfaction, and the association was moderated by psychological resilience, especially for older adults who were male, living in rural, and oldest-old. Results indicate that inequalities in cumulative exposure to perceived unmet HCBS needs may further lead to increasing inequalities in life satisfaction. Interventions focused on minimizing the provision-need gap of HCBS and enhancing personal resilience should be considered to improve the life satisfaction of older adults.

Caring for patients with life-threatening hemoptysis

Chen, L., & Fasolka, B. (2024). Nursing, 54, 44-47. 10.1097/01.NURSE.0000997996.22052.79
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Life-threatening hemoptysis (formerly called massive hemoptysis), though relatively uncommon, imposes significant mortality risks. This article discusses the etiology, clinical presentation, assessment, treatment, and nursing interventions to promote effective clinical management of patients with this condition.

Computationally inferred cell-type specific epigenome-wide DNA methylation analysis unveils distinct methylation patterns among immune cells for HIV infection in three cohorts

Zhang, X., Hu, Y., Vandenhoudt, R. E., Yan, C., Marconi, V. C., Cohen, M. H., Wang, Z., Justice, A. C., Aouizerat, B. E., & Xu, K. (2024). PLoS Pathogens, 20(3). 10.1371/journal.ppat.1012063
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Background Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have identified CpG sites associated with HIV infection in blood cells in bulk, which offer limited knowledge of cell-type specific methylation patterns associated with HIV infection. In this study, we aim to identify differentially methylated CpG sites for HIV infection in immune cell types: CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, B cells, Natural Killer (NK) cells, and monocytes. Methods Applying a computational deconvolution method, we performed a cell-type based EWAS for HIV infection in three independent cohorts (Ntotal = 1,382). DNA methylation in blood or in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was profiled by an array-based method and then deconvoluted by Tensor Composition Analysis (TCA). The TCA-computed CpG methylation in each cell type was first benchmarked by bisulfite DNA methylation capture sequencing in a subset of the samples. Cell-type EWAS of HIV infection was performed in each cohort separately and a meta-EWAS was conducted followed by gene set enrichment analysis. Results The meta-analysis unveiled a total of 2,021 cell-type unique significant CpG sites for five inferred cell types. Among these inferred cell-type unique CpG sites, the concordance rate in the three cohorts ranged from 96% to 100% in each cell type. Cell-type level meta-EWAS unveiled distinct patterns of HIV-associated differential CpG methylation, where 74% of CpG sites were unique to individual cell types (false discovery rate, FDR <0.05). CD4+ T-cells had the largest number of unique HIV-associated CpG sites (N = 1,624) compared to any other cell type. Genes harboring significant CpG sites are involved in immunity and HIV pathogenesis (e.g. CD4+ T-cells: NLRC5, CX3CR1, B cells: IFI44L, NK cells: IL12R, monocytes: IRF7), and in oncogenesis (e.g. CD4+ T-cells: BCL family, PRDM16, monocytes: PRDM16, PDCD1LG2). HIV-associated CpG sites were enriched among genes involved in HIV pathogenesis and oncogenesis that were enriched among interferon-α and -γ, TNF-α, inflammatory response, and apoptotic pathways. Conclusion Our findings uncovered computationally inferred cell-type specific modifications in the host epigenome for people with HIV that contribute to the growing body of evidence regarding HIV pathogenesis.

Developing and testing a web-based platform for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence support among adolescents and young adults (AYA) living with HIV

Dunn-Navarra, A.-M., Gormley, M., Liang, E., Loughran, C., Vorderstrasse, A., Garcia, D. R., Rosenberg, M. G., Fletcher, J., & Goldsamt, L. A. (2024). PEC Innovation, 4. 10.1016/j.pecinn.2024.100263
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Objective: Describe the development and testing of a web-based platform for antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence support among HIV+ adolescents and young adults (AYA) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods: A seven-member multi-disciplinary team operationalized the flat, password protected, web-based platform. Manualized protocols guided the objectives and content for each of the eight web-based sessions. Team members evaluated usability and content validity. Client satisfaction and perceived ease of use was evaluated with the first ten HIV+ AYA participants. Results: The web-based platform was developed, evaluated, refined, implemented and pilot tested between September 2020 to April 2022. Usability was rated as high; the evaluation of content validity showed an excellent fit between session content and objectives. HIV+ AYA participants (mean age = 24.2 years) were satisfied with the quality, type, and amount of support/education received, and found the platform easy to use, operate, and navigate. Average time spent per session was 6.5 min. Conclusion: Findings support the usability, validity, acceptability, and feasibility of this web-based platform for ART adherence support among HIV+ AYA. Innovation: Our research and findings are responsive to research gaps and the need for transparency in the methodological development and testing of web-based control arms for ART adherence support among HIV+ AYA.

The development of social capital in a peer-led mHealth cognitive behavioral antiretroviral therapy adherence intervention for HIV + adolescents and young adults

Goldsamt, L. A., Liang, E., Handschuh, C., & Navarra, A. M. (2024). AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS HIV, 36(4), 425-431. 10.1080/09540121.2023.2262981
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Adherence Connection for Counseling, Education, and Support (ACCESS)-I is a peer-led mHealth antiretroviral therapy adherence intervention for adolescents and young adults living with HIV who are in treatment but have detectable viral loads. Participants received five online sessions with peer health coaches who followed a structured intervention manual. Peers maintained intervention fidelity but also engaged in casual discussion that was not directly related to ART adherence or HIV. We conducted a qualitative analysis of the casual interactions that occurred during the ACCESS I intervention. Sessions were transcribed and coded, and these casual interactions were then coded into 10 subcodes to document their content, and also coded for three types of social capital–emotional, informational, and instrumental. Emotional and Informational social capital codes were the most common, while instrumental codes were rare. Activities was the most common topic overall, while encouragement was more common in emotional social capital narratives and personal experience was more common in informational social capital narratives. These casual interactions may strengthen peer-participant relationships, building social capital that could then be used to encourage positive behavior change. Although social capital was not directly measured, these analyses illustrate the value of attending to seemingly casual interactions in peer-led interventions.

Emergency Nurses’ Perceived Barriers and Solutions to Engaging Patients With Life-Limiting Illnesses in Serious Illness Conversations: A United States Multicenter Mixed-Method Analysis

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Introduction: This study aimed to assess emergency nurses’ perceived barriers toward engaging patients in serious illness conversations. Methods: Using a mixed-method (quant + QUAL) convergent design, we pooled data on the emergency nurses who underwent the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium training across 33 emergency departments. Data were extracted from the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium post-training questionnaire, comprising a 5-item survey and 1 open-ended question. Our quantitative analysis employed a cross-sectional design to assess the proportion of emergency nurses who report that they will encounter barriers in engaging seriously ill patients in serious illness conversations in the emergency department. Our qualitative analysis used conceptual content analysis to generate themes and meaning units of the perceived barriers and possible solutions toward having serious illness conversations in the emergency department. Results: A total of 2176 emergency nurses responded to the survey. Results from the quantitative analysis showed that 1473 (67.7%) emergency nurses reported that they will encounter barriers while engaging in serious illness conversations. Three thematic barriers—human factors, time constraints, and challenges in the emergency department work environment—emerged from the content analysis. Some of the subthemes included the perceived difficulty of serious illness conversations, delay in daily throughput, and lack of privacy in the emergency department. The potential solutions extracted included the need for continued training, the provision of dedicated emergency nurses to handle serious illness conversations, and the creation of dedicated spaces for serious illness conversations. Discussion: Emergency nurses may encounter barriers while engaging in serious illness conversations. Institutional-level policies may be required in creating a palliative care-friendly emergency department work environment.

An Evolutionary Concept Analysis of the "Fighter" in the Intensive Care Unit

Moreines, L. T., Brody, A. A., & Murali, K. P. (2024). Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing. 10.1097/NJH.0000000000001017
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The purpose of this article was to analyze the concept of "the fighter in the intensive care unit (ICU)" per the scientific literature and the impact this mentality has on care administered in the ICU. A literature review and a concept analysis based on Rodger's evolutionary method were performed to identify surrogate terms, antecedents, attributes, and consequences pertaining to the "fighter" in the ICU. Thirteen articles with a focus on "the fighter" were included in this analysis. There is a strong desire to remain optimistic and maintain high spirits as a coping mechanism in the face of extreme prognostic uncertainty. Themes that emerged from the literature were the need to find inner strength and persist in the face of adversity. The concept of "the fighter in the ICU" can serve as either adaptive or maladaptive coping, depending on the larger clinical picture. Patient experiences in the ICU are fraught with physical and psychological distress. How the patient and family unit cope during this anxiety-provoking time is based on the individual. Maintaining optimism and identifying as a fighter can be healthy ways to adapt to the circumstances. This concept analysis highlights the importance of holistic care and instilling hope particularly as patients may be nearing the end of life.

Factors Associated With the Cardiovascular Health of Black and Latino Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

McCarthy, M., Fletcher, J., Wright, F., Del Giudice, I., Wong, A., Aouizerat, B. E., Vaughan Dickson, V., & D’Eramo Melkus, G. (2024). Biological Research for Nursing. 10.1177/10998004241238237
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Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of cardiovascular health (CVH) of Black and Latino adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and examine the association of individual and microsystem level factors with their CVH score. Methods: This was a cross-sectional design in 60 Black and Latino Adults aged 18–40 with T2D. Data were collected on sociodemographic, individual (sociodemographic, diabetes self-management, sleep disturbance, depressive symptoms, quality of life, and the inflammatory biomarkers IL-6 and hs-CRP) and microsystem factors (family functioning), and American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 metrics of CVH. Factors significantly associated with the CVH score in the bivariate analyses were entered into a linear regression model. Results: The sample had a mean age 34 ± 5 years and was primarily female (75%) with a mean CVH score was 8.6 ± 2.2 (possible range of 0–14). The sample achieved these CVH factors at ideal levels: body mass index <25 kg/m2 (8%); blood pressure <120/80 (42%); hemoglobin A1c < 7% (57%); total cholesterol <200 mg/dL (83%); healthy diet (18%); never or former smoker > one year (95%); and physical activity (150 moderate-to-vigorous minutes/week; 45%). In the multivariable model, two factors were significantly associated with cardiovascular health: hs-CRP (B = −0.11621, p <.0001) and the general health scale (B = 0.45127, p =.0013). Conclusions: This sample had an intermediate level of CVH, with inflammation and general health associated with overall CVH score.

Feasibility of a Self-directed Upper Extremity Training Program to Promote Actual Arm Use for Individuals Living in the Community With Chronic Stroke

Kim, G., Gahlot, A., Magsombol, C., Waskiewicz, M., Capasso, N., Van Lew, S., Kim, H., Parnandi, A., Vaughan Dickson, V., & Goverover, Y. (2024). Archives of Rehabilitation Research and Clinical Translation, 6(1). 10.1016/j.arrct.2023.100316
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Objective: To determine the feasibility of a self-directed training protocol to promote actual arm use in everyday life. The secondary aim was to explore the initial efficacy on upper extremity (UE) outcome measures. Design: Feasibility study using multiple methods. Setting: Home and outpatient research lab. Participants: Fifteen adults (6 women, 9 men, mean age=53.08 years) with chronic stroke living in the community. There was wide range of UE functional levels, ranging from dependent stabilizer (limited function) to functional assist (high function). Intervention: Use My Arm-Remote protocol. Phase 1 consisted of clinician training on motivational interviewing (MI). Phase 2 consisted of MI sessions with participants to determine participant generated goals, training activities, and training schedules. Phase 3 consisted of UE task-oriented training (60 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks). Participants received daily surveys through an app to monitor arm training behavior and weekly virtual check-ins with clinicians to problem-solve challenges and adjust treatment plans. Outcome Measures: Primary outcome measures were feasibility domains after intervention, measured by quantitative study data and qualitative semi-structured interviews. Secondary outcomes included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Motor Activity Log (MAL), Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), and accelerometry-based duration of use metric measured at baseline, discharge, and 4-week follow-up. Results: The UMA-R was feasible in the following domains: recruitment rate, retention rate, intervention acceptance, intervention delivery, adherence frequency, and safety. Adherence to duration of daily practice did not meet our criteria. Improvements in UE outcomes were achieved at discharge and maintained at follow-up as measured by COPM-Performance subscale (F[1.42, 19.83]=17.72, P<.001) and COPM-Satisfaction subscale (F[2, 28]=14.73, P<.001), MAL (F[1.31, 18.30]=12.05, P<.01) and the FMA (F[2, 28]=16.62, P<.001). Conclusion: The UMA-R was feasible and safe to implement for individuals living in the community with chronic stroke. Adherence duration was identified as area of refinement. Participants demonstrated improvements in standardized UE outcomes to support initial efficacy of the UMA-R. Shared decision-making and behavior change frameworks can support the implementation of UE self-directed rehabilitation. Our results warrant the refinement and further testing of the UMA-R.

Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Effectiveness of a Sleep Intervention in Adults at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome With Short Sleep Duration

Malone, S. K., Patterson, F., Grunin, L., Yu, G., Dickson, V. V., & Melkus, G. D. (2024). Nursing Research, 73(1), 72-80. 10.1097/NNR.0000000000000693
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Background: The prevalence of short sleep duration is rising and is linked to chronic comorbidities, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Sleep extension interventions in adults with MetS comorbidities and short sleep duration are limited and vary widely in terms of approach and duration. Objectives: This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of a personalized 12-week systematic sleep time extension intervention on post-intervention sleep outcomes in middle-aged adults at risk forMetSwith actigraphy-estimated short sleep duration. Methods: A single-arm, 12-week, 12-session systematic sleep time extension intervention was delivered weekly via videoconferencing. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed using retention rates and mean sleep diary completions. Sleep was estimated for 14 consecutive days prior to and immediately following the 12-week intervention using wrist actigraphy. Daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Paired sample t-tests modeled changes in study outcomes. Results: Study participants (N = 41) had a mean age of 52 years and were mostly female and White; 86% attended >80% of sessions, and mean sleep diary completion was 6.7 diaries/week. Significant improvements in sleep from pre- to post-intervention included increased total sleep time, earlier sleep onsets, more regular sleep onsets, a higher sleep regularity index, and reduced daytime sleepiness. Extending sleep, as well as improving sleep timing and regularity in middle-aged adults with actigraphy-estimated short sleep duration and at risk for MetS, is feasible and acceptable. Discussion: Behavioral sleep characteristics may be modifiable and present a novel behavioral paradigm for mitigating MetS risk. This pilot study provides a proof of concept for the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of a systematic sleep time extension for middle-aged adults at risk for MetS with actigraphy-estimated short sleep duration.

Gut microbiota, nutrition, and mental health

Merlo, G., Bachtel, G., & Sugden, S. G. (2024). Frontiers in Nutrition, 11. 10.3389/fnut.2024.1337889
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The human brain remains one of the greatest challenges for modern medicine, yet it is one of the most integral and sometimes overlooked aspects of medicine. The human brain consists of roughly 100 billion neurons, 100 trillion neuronal connections and consumes about 20–25% of the body’s energy. Emerging evidence highlights that insufficient or inadequate nutrition is linked to an increased risk of brain health, mental health, and psychological functioning compromise. A core component of this relationship includes the intricate dynamics of the brain-gut-microbiota (BGM) system, which is a progressively recognized factor in the sphere of mental/brain health. The bidirectional relationship between the brain, gut, and gut microbiota along the BGM system not only affects nutrient absorption and utilization, but also it exerts substantial influence on cognitive processes, mood regulation, neuroplasticity, and other indices of mental/brain health. Neuroplasticity is the brain’s capacity for adaptation and neural regeneration in response to stimuli. Understanding neuroplasticity and considering interventions that enhance the remarkable ability of the brain to change through experience constitutes a burgeoning area of research that has substantial potential for improving well-being, resilience, and overall brain health through optimal nutrition and lifestyle interventions. The nexus of lifestyle interventions and both academic and clinical perspectives of nutritional neuroscience emerges as a potent tool to enhance patient outcomes, proactively mitigate mental/brain health challenges, and improve the management and treatment of existing mental/brain health conditions by championing health-promoting dietary patterns, rectifying nutritional deficiencies, and seamlessly integrating nutrition-centered strategies into clinical care.

Home Health Care to Asian Americans: a Systematic Review

Ma, C., Rajewski, M., & Bao, S. (2024). Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 11(2), 865-873. 10.1007/s40615-023-01568-8
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Objective: Despite being the fastest growing minority group in the USA, Asian Americans are among the least studied ones, particularly in the home and community-based services settings. This study aimed to review and synthesize extant evidence on Asian American’s access, utilization, and outcomes of home health care. Methods: This is a systematic review study. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed and CINAHL as well as hand search. Each study was screened, reviewed, and evaluated for quality by at least two reviewers independently. Results: Twelve articles were determined eligible and included for review. Asian Americans were less likely to be discharged to home health care following hospitalization. At admission to home health care, Asian Americans had a high rate of inappropriate medication issues (28%) and they also had poorer functional status compared to White Americans. Asian Americans were also reported with less improvement in functional status at the end of home health care; however, there were some inconsistencies in the evidence on Asian Americans’ utilization of formal/skilled home health care. Quality evaluation indicated that findings from some studies were limited by small sample size, single site/home health agency, analytic approaches, and other methodologic limitations. Conclusions: Asian Americans often experience inequities in home health care access, utilization, and outcomes. Multilevel factors may contribute to such inequities, including structural racism. Robust research using population-based data and advanced methodology is needed to better understand home health care to Asian Americans.

How academia can help to grow—and sustain—a robust nursing workforce

Margolis, M., Clancy, C., Hayes, R., Sullivan-Marx, E., Wetrich, J. G., & Broome, M. (2024). Nursing Outlook, 72(1). 10.1016/j.outlook.2023.102017
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This panel paper is the second installment in a six-part Nursing Outlook special edition based on the 2022 Emory Business Case for Nursing Summit. The 2022 summit convened national nursing, health care, and business leaders to explore possible solutions to nursing workforce crises, including the nursing shortage. Each of the summit's four panels authored a paper in the special edition on their respective topic(s), and this panel paper focuses on the topic of nursing workforce growth. It discusses priority areas for academia to help ameliorate nursing shortages, including through changes to nursing curricula and/or programming, greater attention to nursing financial needs (including nursing student loans), and regulatory reforms.

Influence of the work environment of nurses on the 30-day mortality of patients hospitalized in Polish hospitals. cross-sectional studies

Malinowska-Lipień, I., Put, D., Maluchnik, M., Gabryś, T., Kózka, M., Gajda, K., Gniadek, A., Brzostek, T., & Squires, A. (2024). BMC Nursing, 23(1). 10.1186/s12912-024-01762-x
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Background: An optimal work environment for nurses is characterized primarily by appropriate staffing, good team relations, and support from the management staff. These factors are consistently associated with a positive assessment of patient safety by a hospital’s employees and a reduction in hospital mortality rates. Aim: To understand the relationships between the work environment as perceived by nurses on the 30-day mortality of patients treated in Polish hospitals. Background: An optimal work environment for nurses is characterized primarily by appropriate staffing, good team relations, and support from the management staff. These factors are consistently associated with a positive assessment of patient safety by a hospital’s employees and a reduction in hospital mortality rates. Material and methods: The analysis used discharge data from 108,284 patients hospitalized in internal medicine and surgery departments in 21 hospitals (with 24/7 operations) in Poland. Administrative data included coded data to estimate 30-day mortality. A Nurses’ satisfaction questionnaire, including the PES-NWI scale and the SAQ questionnaire, was used to assess the work environment of nurses (n = 1,929). Correlations between variables were assessed using the Pearson coefficient. The analysis used a Poisson regression model, which belongs to the class of generalized linear models. Results: A lower 30-day mortality rate amongst patients was found among those treated in hospitals where the personnel feel that they may question the decisions or actions of their superiors regarding the care provided (r = − 0.50); nurses are informed about changes introduced on the basis of reports about negligence and mistakes (r = − 0.50); the ward nurse is a good manager (r = − 0.41); nurses receive timely information from the head of the department that may have an impact on their work (r = − 0.41). Conclusions: Factors related to care during hospital stay such as the organization of care at the ward level, analysis of care errors, the number of staff providing direct patient care, informing nurses about mistakes without punishment, and the possibility of nurses challenging the decisions or actions of superiors, which concerns care providing, affect the 30-day mortality of patients after the end of hospitalization in Polish hospitals.

The informal discussion of advance care planning among Chinese older adults: Do education and social media use matter?

Pei, Y., Qi, X., Zhu, Z., Zhang, W., Tsay, R. M., & Wu, B. (2024). Geriatric Nursing, 55, 1-5. 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2023.10.023
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This study aimed to examine and compare the associations between education, social media use, and advance care planning (ACP) discussion among Chinese older adults in mainland China (Wuhan), Taiwan (Taichung), and the United States (Honolulu). Community-dwelling older adults (≥ 55) were recruited from 2017 to 2018. The ACP discussion rate in Wuhan, Taichung, and Honolulu were 15.2 %, 19.2 %, and 31.3 %, respectively. Logistic regression models revealed that education was positively associated with ACP discussion in Taichung and Honolulu. Social media use was positively associated with ACP discussions in Wuhan and Honolulu, and it attenuated the association between education and ACP discussion in Honolulu. The present study contributes to previous studies by comparing the associations between education, social media use, and ACP discussion in different settings within the same ethnicity. Policy and practice implications were also discussed.

Information Seeking Behavior and Strategies to Increase Milk Supply Among Breastfeeding Mothers in the United States

Ryan, R. A., Bihuniak, J. D., Lyndon, A., & Hepworth, A. D. (2024). Breastfeeding Medicine. 10.1089/bfm.2024.0006
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Background: Some breastfeeding mothers try to increase their milk supply through pharmaceutical, dietary, and behavioral strategies that vary in effectiveness. Information seeking behaviors may influence which strategies mothers use. Objective: To describe where mothers obtain information about increasing milk supply, describe the perceived influence of each information source on decision-making about strategies for increasing milk supply, and explore associations between information sources and mothers’ use of galactagogues (i.e., pharmaceutical and dietary strategies) and behavioral strategies. Methods: Women who were currently breastfeeding and living in the United States were recruited through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey between December 2020 and February 2021. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and chi-square tests compared participants’ use of galactagogues and behavioral strategies by information sources. Results: Participants were 1,351 breastfeeding mothers (81% non-Hispanic white; 47% first-time breastfeeding; 21% Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participants). Nearly all participants (97%) obtained information about increasing milk supply from at least one source, most commonly lactation consultants (68%), Facebook (61%), search engines (50%), websites (47%), and nurses (41%). There was high variability in the perceived influence of each source on decision-making. Galactagogue use was higher among participants who obtained information from the internet (Yes: 68% vs. No: 43%, p < 0.000), social media (Yes: 65% vs. No: 40%, p < 0.000), family and friends (Yes: 65% vs. No: 53%, p < 0.000), and lactation consultants (Yes: 63% vs. No: 54%, p < 0.002). Behavioral strategies were more commonly reported among participants who accessed these same sources, maternal health care professionals (Yes: 98% vs. No: 91%, p < 0.000), and pediatricians (Yes: 98% vs. No: 94%, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Breastfeeding mothers commonly obtained information about increasing milk supply from a variety of sources. Information sources accessed were associated with mothers’ use of galactagogues and behavioral strategies for increasing milk supply.

Janus: Remembering the past and looking to the future

Newland, J. A. (2024). Nurse Practitioner, 49(1), 4. 10.1097/01.NPR.0000000000000133

Making the invisible visible: The importance of applying a lens of Intersectionality for researching Internationally Educated Nurses

Thompson, R. A., Lewis, K. R., Curtis, C. A., Olanrewaju, S. A., & Squires, A. (2024). Nursing Outlook, 72(1). 10.1016/j.outlook.2023.102086

Mental Health Screenings: Practices and Patterns of These and Other Health Screenings in U.S. School Districts

McCabe, E. M., Jameson, B. E., & Strauss, S. M. (2024). Journal of School Nursing, 40(2), 144-154. 10.1177/10598405211056647
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Schools’ health screenings can identify students’ missed health concerns. Data from the 2016 School Health Policies and Practices Study were used to determine the proportion of U.S. school districts with physical and mental health screening policies and the proportion that arrange off-campus mental health services. We also examined differences between districts with and without mental health screening policies regarding having physical health screening policies, patterns of these policies, and off-campus mental health service arrangements. Eleven percent of districts had no policies on any of the four physical health screenings assessed, and 87% lacked policies on mental health screenings, the latter especially concerning considering the impact of COVID-19. Districts with policies on mental health screenings were significantly more likely to have body mass index (p <.01) and oral health (p <.001) screening policies, and to arrange for off-campus case management (p <.001), family counseling (p <.05), group counseling (p <.01), self-help (p <.05) and intake evaluation (p <.05).

The Moderating Role of Self-Rated Oral Health on the Association Between Oral Health Status and Subjective Well-Being: Findings From Chinese Older Adults in Hawaiʻi and Taiwan

Zhang, K., Wu, B., Tsay, R. M., Wu, L. H., & Zhang, W. (2024). Research on Aging, 46(1), 3-14. 10.1177/01640275231158771
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This paper aims to address the research questions of whether individual’s oral health status is associated with subjective well-being, as well as if there is possible moderating role of self-rated oral health among two groups of Chinese older adults (≥55 years old) in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi and Taichung, Taiwan. Using survey data collected in 2018 (N = 430, Honolulu) and in 2017 (N = 645, Taichung), ordinary least square regressions were applied. Results showed that, for both samples, oral health status was negatively and significantly associated with subjective well-being, and both associations were moderated by self-rated oral health. In addition, the moderating effects were more salient for the Honolulu sample, who enjoyed higher levels of self-rated oral health and life satisfaction. These results suggest the significant associations of both oral health status and self-rated oral health on individual health and well-being for Chinese older adults residing in different cultural contexts.

Movement is muscle in hospitalized adults

Brennan, M. M. (2024). Geriatric Nursing, 55, 373-375. 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2023.11.015
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Physical inactivity is a major public health concern, but for hospitalized adults, the results of immobility are even more alarming. The “trauma of hospitalization” is a syndrome that refers to the collective impact of immobility, sleep deficits, and malnutrition associated with hospitalization and contributes to functional deficits. Functional decline is a modifiable and preventable risk factor. Nursing, at the center of patient care, is poised to coordinate the patient's mobility activities. Multiple steps to stave off functional decline to improve health outcomes for older adults are in the control of nurses and nursing practice and reflect the goals of the NICHE practice model.

A New Focus on Global Health

Hallas, D. (2024). Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 38(1), 1-2. 10.1016/j.pedhc.2023.09.007

The NICHE Coordinator: A key leadership role in the NICHE practice model

Mack, K. M., & Gilmartin, M. (2024). Geriatric Nursing, 56, 340-344. 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2024.02.025
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This month we focus on the role of the NICHE Coordinator, who leads NICHE program activities to advance the use of evidence-based practices that improve the quality and safety of care delivered to older adults in healthcare delivery settings. We present a new leadership development class for NICHE Coordinators to enhance their overall effectiveness with implementing the NICHE practice model in their organizations.