Exploratory Study of Associations Between DNA Repair and Oxidative Stress Gene Polymorphisms and Cognitive Problems Reported by Postmenopausal Women With and Without Breast Cancer
Merriman, J., Sereika, S. M., Conley, Y. P., Koleck, T. A., Zhu, Y., Phillips, M. L., Bertocci, M. A., Brufsky, A. M., & Bender, C. M. (2019). Biological Research for Nursing, 21(1), 50-60. 10.1177/1099800418799964
Purpose: Women with breast cancer report varying frequencies of cognitive problems during adjuvant systemic therapy. This variability suggests latent subgroups. Therefore, we identified latent subgroups of self-reported cognitive problems among postmenopausal women with and without breast cancer. We explored associations between membership in these subgroups and (a) demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics and (b) variations in candidate gene polymorphisms. Methods: We evaluated frequency of cognitive problems using the Patient Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory. Growth mixture modeling identified latent subgroups over 18 months of adjuvant systemic therapy and at matched time points for women without cancer (N = 331). We evaluated for differences among subgroups in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics and in 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 candidate genes involved in DNA repair and oxidative stress pathways (n = 199). We modeled associations between genotypes and subgroup membership using multinomial logistic regression. Results: We identified three latent subgroups: more frequent, persistent, and almost never. Receipt of chemotherapy plus anastrozole, depressive symptoms, and baseline neuropathic symptoms increased the odds of belonging to the more frequent subgroup. Anxiety and depressive symptoms increased the odds of belonging to the persistent subgroup. With covariates controlled for, carrying the ERCC5 rs873601 G minor allele increased the odds of reporting more frequent cognitive problems. Conclusions: Chemotherapy plus anastrozole, depressive symptoms, and presence of neuropathic symptoms may predict more frequent cognitive problems during systemic therapy that later resolve. Mood dysregulation before therapy may predict persistent cognitive problems during therapy. ERCC5 genotype may influence frequency of cognitive problems after controlling for these risk factors.
Factors Predicting Adoption of the Nurses Improving Care of Healthsystem Elders ProgramAbstract
Background Registered nurses are often underprepared with the knowledge and skills to care for hospitalized older adult patients. One strategy to bridge this gap is for hospitals to adopt the Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders (NICHE) program: A nurse-led interdisciplinary organizational intervention to improve care of hospitalized older adults. Objectives This study aimed to identify the market, organizational and managerial, and sociotechnical factors associated with the adoption of NICHE among U.S. hospitals in order to understand factors that promote and inhibit the adoption of models to improve care for elders and to provide a basis for future studies that evaluate the effects of NICHE participation on patient outcomes. Methods We used an observational, retrospective design, linking three national administrative data sources, in a secondary analysis. Data included the 2012-2013 American Hospital Association Annual Survey, NICHE database, and the American Nurses Credentialing Center Magnet database. Multivariate logistic regression models were completed at the hospital level (n = 3,506). Results Statistically significant variables associated with hospital adoption of the NICHE program include using a medical home model, being in a network, having a pain services program, being in an urban location, and having over 100 beds. Discussion Understanding factors that promote the adoption of organizational interventions like NICHE holds promise for accelerating the use of evidence-based clinical practices to promote health, function, and well-being for older hospitalized adults. Our results provide a foundation for assessing the effects of NICHE participation on patient outcomes by identifying factors that account for membership in NICHE.
NuRsing Research in the 21st Century: R You Ready?
Nurse scientists are adept at translating findings from basic science into useful clinical- and community-based interventions to improve health. Over time, the focus of some nursing research has grown to include the assessment and evaluation of genomic and other output from high-throughput, or “omic,” technologies as indicators related to health and disease. To date, the growth in the application of omics technologies in nursing research has included calls to increase attention to omics in nursing school curricula and educational training opportunities, such as the Summer Genetics Institute offered by the National Institute of Nursing Research. However, there has been scant attention paid in the nursing literature to the complexity of data analysis or issues of reproducibility related to omics studies. The goals of this article are to (1) familiarize nurse scientists with tools that encourage reproducibility in omics studies, with a focus on the free and open-source data processing and analysis pipeline, and (2) provide a baseline understanding of how these tools can be used to improve collaboration and cohesion among interdisciplinary research team members. Knowledge of these tools and skill in applying them will be important for communication across disciplines and imperative for the advancement of omics research in nursing.
Psychological well-being of Chinese Immigrant adult-child caregivers: how do filial expectation, self-rated filial performance, and filial discrepancy matter?Abstract
Background: Given the importance of ethnic culture in family caregiving and recent Chinese immigrant population growth, this study explored effects of multiple filial piety traits—filial expectation, self-rated filial performance, and filial discrepancy—on psychological well-being of Chinese immigrants who care for older parents (adult-child caregivers) in the United States. Methods: This study used cross-sectional data from 393 Chinese immigrant adult-child caregivers in the Greater Chicago area from the 2012–2014 Piety study. Multivariate negative binomial and linear regression analyses tested effects of filial expectation, self-rated filial performance, overall filial discrepancy, and discrepancies in six filial domains (respect, bringing happiness, care, greeting, obedience, and financial support) on psychological well-being indicators: depressive symptoms and stress. Results: Adult-child caregivers reported high filial expectation and self-rated performance, and expectation was higher than performance. High filial expectation and self-rated performance were significantly associated with better psychological well-being; Overall filial discrepancy and two emotional-support domain discrepancies (respect, greeting) were associated with poor psychological well-being. Conclusions: Findings suggest that filial expectation, self-rated filial performance, and filial discrepancy are important in shaping Chinese adult-child caregivers’ psychological well-being. Researchers and practitioners should incorporate these aspects of filial piety in future research and intervention development for this population.
Sleep as a Target for Optimized Response to Smoking Cessation Treatment
Patterson, F., Grandner, M. A., Malone, S., Rizzo, A., Davey, A., & Edwards, D. G. (2019). Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 21(2), 139-148. 10.1093/ntr/ntx236
Declining national rates of current tobacco use to an all-time low of 15.1% represents a public health victory. Undermining this progress, however, are smoking rates of up to 50% among high-risk, low-income populations. Current FDA-approved treatments for nicotine dependence are ineffective with between 70-95% of treatment-seekers relapsing within the first year of attempted abstinence. Thus, identification of novel intervention targets to optimize response to currently available treatments for nicotine dependence is a critical next step. One such target may be sleep insomnia. Insomnia is a clinically verified nicotine withdrawal symptom but, to date, addressing insomnia or other sleep disturbance symptoms as an adjunctive smoking cessation therapy has yet to be fully considered. To this end, this manuscript presents a narrative review of: (1) sleep continuity and architecture in smokers versus nonsmokers; (2) effects of nicotine abstinence on sleep; (3) possible mechanisms linking sleep with smoking cessation outcomes; (4) plausible adjunctive sleep therapies to promote smoking cessation; (5) possible treatments for unhealthy sleep in smokers; and (6) directions for future research. Taken together, this will provide conceptual support for sleep therapy as an adjunctive treatment for smoking cessation. Implications: This narrative literature review presents a comprehensive discussion of the relationship between habitual sleep and cigarette smoking. The extent to which unhealthy sleep in smokers may be a viable intervention target for promoting response to smoking cessation treatment is considered. Ultimately, this review provides conceptual support for sleep therapy as an adjunctive treatment for smoking cessation.
Addressing a Critical Gap in U.S. National Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: The Acceptability and Feasibility of Father-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Interventions for Latino Adolescent Males
Purpose: The purpose of the research was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a father-based sexual and reproductive health intervention designed to reduce sexual and reproductive (SRH) disparities and increase correct and consistent condom use among Latino adolescent males. Methods: The current study conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with Latino father-son dyads (N=30) designed to elicit perspectives on communication regarding sex and condom use. In addition, the interview protocol included father-son preferences regarding paternal involvement in condom instruction and perceived obstacles and advantages of father direct involvement in education efforts designed to increase correct and consistent condom use among their adolescent sons. Three independent coders conducted both vertical and horizontal analyses of the data to identify emergent themes and reach theoretical saturation. Results: The main findings from this study suggest that Latino fathers can be impactful in shaping Latino adolescent male sexual decision-making and correct and consistent condom use. However, our data highlight that while both feasible and acceptable, Latino fathers identify needing additional support in how best to communicate and seek opportunities to master their own knowledge and skills regarding condom use and effective communication with their adolescent sons about sex. Conclusions: Latino father-based interventions represent an acceptable and feasible option for building upon the recent success of U.S. national efforts to reduce teen pregnancy rates and STI disparities among Latino youth. However, there exists a need for father-based programs that will support Latino fathers in best educating their sons about condom use and better addressing their SRH. Ongoing national efforts to reduce Latino teen SRH disparities warrant the consideration of father-son interventions for Latino adolescent males in the United States.
Addressing the Social Determinants of Health: A Call to Action for School Nurses
Social determinants of health (SDOH), the conditions in which children are born, grow, live, work or attend school, and age, impact child health and contribute to health disparities. School nurses must consider these factors as part of their clinical practice because they significantly and directly influence child well-being. We provide clinical guidance for addressing the SDOH when caring for children with three common health problems (obesity, insufficient sleep, and asthma). Given their unique role as school-based clinical experts, care coordinators, and student advocates, school nurses are well suited to serve as leaders in addressing SDOH.
Aging and Global Health
Wu, B., & Feng, Y. (2018). People’s Medical Publishing House.
Aging and Long-term Care
Wu, B., & Peng, R. (2018). In Aging and Global Health (pp. 149-165). People’s Medical Publishing House.
An assistive technology system that provides personalized dressing support for people living with dementia: Capability study
Background: Individuals living with advancing stages of dementia (persons with dementia, PWDs) or other cognitive disorders do not have the luxury of remembering how to perform basic day-to-day activities, which in turn makes them increasingly dependent on the assistance of caregivers. Dressing is one of the most common and stressful activities provided by caregivers because of its complexity and privacy challenges posed during the process. Objective: In preparation for in-home trials with PWDs, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a prototype intelligent system, the DRESS prototype, to assess its ability to provide automated assistance with dressing that can afford independence and privacy to individual PWDs and potentially provide additional freedom to their caregivers (family members and professionals). Methods: This laboratory study evaluated the DRESS prototype's capacity to detect dressing events. These events were engaged in by 11 healthy participants simulating common correct and incorrect dressing scenarios. The events ranged from donning a shirt and pants inside out or backwards to partial dressing-typical issues that challenge a PWD and their caregivers. Results: A set of expected detections for correct dressing was prepared via video analysis of all participants' dressing behaviors. In the initial phases of donning either shirts or pants, the DRESS prototype missed only 4 out of 388 expected detections. The prototype's ability to recognize other missing detections varied across conditions. There were also some unexpected detections such as detection of the inside of a shirt as it was being put on. Throughout the study, detection of dressing events was adversely affected by the relatively smaller effective size of the markers at greater distances. Although the DRESS prototype incorrectly identified 10 of 22 cases for shirts, the prototype preformed significantly better for pants, incorrectly identifying only 5 of 22 cases. Further analyses identified opportunities to improve the DRESS prototype's reliability, including increasing the size of markers, minimizing garment folding or occlusions, and optimal positioning of participants with respect to the DRESS prototype. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the ability to detect clothing orientation and position and infer current state of dressing using a combination of sensors, intelligent software, and barcode tracking. With improvements identified by this study, the DRESS prototype has the potential to provide a viable option to provide automated dressing support to assist PWDs in maintaining their independence and privacy, while potentially providing their caregivers with the much-needed respite.
Associations Between Acculturation and Oral Health Among Older Chinese Immigrants in the United States
Background: The aim of this study was to understand the associations between acculturation and oral health among older Chinese immigrants in the United States. Method: We used data from the PINE study, which included the foreign-born older Chinese immigrants (N = 3,128). We measured acculturation by measuring participants’ length of stay and behavioral acculturation. Participants’ tooth and gum symptoms were the outcome variables. Results: Longer stay in the United States was significantly associated with fewer gum symptoms but not with tooth symptoms. Behavioral acculturation was not significantly associated with either tooth or gum symptoms. The middle tertile of behavioral acculturation, compared with its upper and lower tertiles, deemed to be a more significant risk factor of tooth/gum symptoms. In addition, older immigrants with more social interactions with the Americans were more likely to have tooth symptoms. Discussion: In the future, we will conduct a study using longitudinal data to help us better understand the relationship between acculturation and oral health in Chinese American population.
Best practices and inclusion of team science principles in appointment promotion and tenure documents in research intensive schools of nursing
Background: Nurse scientists are highly sought after and find satisfaction in serving as members of interdisciplinary research teams. These teams also tend to be highly productive. However, nurse scientists in academia also have to reach certain productivity milestones to be promoted and receive tenure that may be incongruent with team science principles. Purpose: This study therefore sought to examine whether APT documents in research intensive nursing schools incorporate team science principles. Methods: Qualitatively analyzed the appointment, promotion and tenure documents of 18 U.S. based research intensive schools of nursing with over $2 million in NIH funding in fiscal year 2014. Results: The study found that only 8 of 18 documents included any reference to team science principles and even these mentions were largely negligible. There were few best practices to recommend across documents. By not recognizing team science within these documents, nursing risks marginalization within the larger scientific community by limiting mentorship and learning opportunities for early career nurse scientists. Conclusions: Schools of nursing should revisit their promotion and tenure criteria and include a greater commitment to encouragement of team science.
Cardiovascular disease risk among older immigrants in the United States
Background: In the United States, 16 million immigrants are 50 years and older, but little is known about their cardiometabolic health and how to best assess their cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Aging immigrants may therefore not be benefitting from advances in CVD prevention. Objective: In this study, we estimate and compare CVD risk in a nationally representative sample of aging immigrants using 3 different measures. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Immigrants 50 years and older with no history of CVD were eligible. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS), the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Risk Equation, and presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were used to estimate risk. Bivariate statistics were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0 Complex Survey module to account for National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey unique weighting scheme. Results: The mean age of the sample was 61.3 years; 40% had hypertension, 17% had diabetes, 10% were smokers, and 95% did not meet the recommended physical activity guidelines. Proportions at an elevated CVD risk were as follows: American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, 42% female and 76% male; FRS, 17.4% female and 76% male; and MetS, 22% female and 24% male. Conclusions: Immigrants had a lower overall risk using MetS and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association equation than has been found using these tools in similarly aged samples. The opposite was true for the FRS. The discrepancy between the proportion at risk and those being treated may reflect healthcare access gaps that warrant further investigation. A more holistic approach to risk measurement is needed that accounts for determinants of health that disproportionately affect immigrants, including language and socioeconomic status.
Changes in the Occurrence, Severity, and Distress of Symptoms in Patients With Gastrointestinal Cancers Receiving Chemotherapy
Tantoy, I. Y., Cooper, B. A., Dhruva, A., Cataldo, J., Paul, S. M., Conley, Y. P., Hammer, M., Wright, F., Dunn, L. B., Levine, J. D., & Miaskowski, C. (2018). Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2017.10.004
Context: Studies on multiple dimensions of the symptom experience of patients with gastrointestinal cancers are extremely limited. Objective: Purpose was to evaluate for changes over time in the occurrence, severity, and distress of seven common symptoms in these patients. Methods: Patients completed Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, six times over two cycles of chemotherapy (CTX). Changes over time in occurrence, severity, and distress of pain, lack of energy, nausea, feeling drowsy, difficulty sleeping, and change in the way food tastes were evaluated using multilevel regression analyses. In the conditional models, effects of treatment group (i.e., with or without targeted therapy), age, number of metastatic sites, time from cancer diagnosis, number of prior cancer treatments, cancer diagnosis, and CTX regimen on enrollment levels, as well as the trajectories of symptom occurrence, severity, and distress were evaluated. Results: Although the occurrence rates for pain, lack of energy, feeling drowsy, difficulty sleeping, and change in the way food tastes declined over the two cycles of CTX, nausea and numbness/tingling in hands/feet had more complex patterns of occurrence. Severity and distress ratings for the seven symptoms varied across the two cycles of CTX. Conclusions: Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with differences in enrollment levels as well as changes over time in occurrence, severity, and distress of these seven common symptoms were highly variable. These findings can be used to identify patients who are at higher risk for more severe and distressing symptoms during CTX and to enable the initiation of preemptive symptom management interventions.
Collecting Mobility Data with GPS Methods to Understand the HIV Environmental Riskscape Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Multi-city Feasibility Study in the Deep South
Duncan, D., Chaix, B., Regan, S. D., Park, S. H., Draper, C., Goedel, W. C., Gipson, J. A., Guilamo, V., Halkitis, P. N., Brewer, R., & Hickson, D. M. (2018). AIDS and Behavior, 1-14. 10.1007/s10461-018-2163-9
While research increasingly studies how neighborhood contexts influence HIV among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) populations, to date, no research has used global positioning system (GPS) devices, an innovative method to study spatial mobility through neighborhood contexts, i.e., the environmental riskscape, among a sample of Black MSM. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of collecting two-week GPS data (as measured by a pre- and post-surveys as well as objectively measured adherence to GPS protocol) among a geographically-diverse sample of Black MSM in the Deep South: Gulfport, MS, Jackson, MS, and New Orleans LA (n = 75). GPS feasibility was demonstrated including from survey items, e.g. Black MSM reported high ratings of pre-protocol acceptability, ease of use, and low levels of wear-related concerns. Findings from this study demonstrate that using GPS methods is acceptable and feasible among Black MSM in the Deep South.
A comparison of perceived uselessness between centenarians and non-centenarians in China
Background: Self-perceived uselessness is associated with poorer health in older adults. However, it is unclear whether there is a difference in self-perceived uselessness between centenarians and non-centenarians, and if so, which factors contributed to the difference. Methods: We used four waves of a nationwide longitudinal dataset from 2005 to 2014 in China to investigate these research goals. We first performed multinomial logit regression models to examine the risk of the high or moderate frequency of self-perceived uselessness relative to the low frequency among centenarians (5778 persons) in comparison with non-centenarians aged 65-99 (20,846 persons). We then conducted a cohort analysis for those born in 1906-1913, examining differences in self-perceived uselessness between those centenarians and those died between ages 91 and 99 during 2005-2014. Results: Compared to persons aged 65-79, centenarians had 84% (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.84, 95% CI:1.69-2.01) and 35% (RRR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.25-1.46) higher risk to have the high frequency and the moderate frequency of feeling useless versus low frequency, respectively, when only demographic factors were controlled for. However, centenarians had 31% (RRR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54-0.88), 43% (RRR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.49-0.68), and 25% (RRR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.67-0.83) lower risk, respectively, to have the high frequency of self-perceived uselessness relative to the low frequency when a wide set of study covariates were controlled for. In the case of the moderate versus the low frequency of self-perceived uselessness, the corresponding figures were 18% (RRR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.66-1.02), 22% (RRR = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.67-0.90), and 13% (RRR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79-0.96), respectively. The cohort analysis further indicates that those who became centenarians were 36-39% less likely than those died at ages 91-94 to report the high and the moderate frequencies of self-perceived uselessness versus the low frequency; no difference was found between centenarians and those died at ages 95-99. In both period and cohort analyses, behavioral and health-related factors affected the perception substantially. Conclusions: Overall, centenarians were less likely to perceive themselves as useless compared to non-centenarians of younger birth cohorts when a wide set of covariates were considered and non-centenarians of the same birth cohort. How centenarians manage to do so remains an open question. Our findings may help improve our understanding about the longevity secrets of centenarians.
Continuous professional development of Liberia's midwifery workforce—A coordinated multi-stakeholder approach
Background: Maternal and newborn mortality remains high in Liberia. There is a severe rural–urban gap in accessibility to health care services. A competent midwifery workforce is able to meet the needs of mothers and newborns. Evidence shows that competence can be assured through initial education along with continuous professional development (CPD). In the past, CPD was not regulated and coordinated in Liberia which is cpommon in the African region. Aim: To Support a competent regulated midwifery workforce through continuous professional development. Methodology: A new CPD model was developed by the Liberian Board for Nursing and Midwifery. With its establishment, all midwives and nurses are required to undertake CPD programmes consisting of certified training and mentoring in order to renew their practicing license. The new model is being piloted in one county in which regular mentoring visits that include skills training are being conducted combined with the use of mobile learning applications addressing maternity health issues. Quality control of the CPD pilot is assured by the Liberian Board for Nursing and Midwifery. The mentoring visits are conducted on a clinical level but are coordinated on the national and county level. Successes and sustainability: CPD using mobile learning on smartphones and regular mentoring visits not only improved knowledge and skills of midwives and nurses but also provided a solution to enhance accessibility in rural areas through improved communication and transportation, as well as improved career development of health personnel working in remote areas. Mentors were trained on a national, county, and health facility level in the pilot county with mentoring visits conducted regularly. Conclusion: The CPD programme of the Liberian Board for Nursing and Midwifery, currently in pilot-testing by various partners, aims to highlight the positive impact of the coordinating role of both the regulatory body and health authorities. Using regular process and programme reviews to improve capacity, knowledge, and skills of health professionals.
Contributory behaviors and life satisfaction among Chinese older adults: Exploring variations by gender and living arrangements
The rapid population aging taking place in China makes studies tackling opportunities associated with aging an urgent priority. Based on the productive aging perspective, this study examines the relationship between contributory behaviors (i.e., providing economic, housework, and emotional support to adult children and providing care for grandchildren) and life satisfaction, as well as how gender and living arrangements modify the relationship. Using data collected from 809 older adults in Wuhan, China, and applying ordinary least squares regressions, this study found that engaging in contributory behaviors in general, and providing emotional support to adult children and caring for grandchildren in particular, are associated with enhanced life satisfaction. The association between caring for grandchildren and life satisfaction is only salient for males but not for females. For living arrangements, the positive association between engaging in contributory behaviors and life satisfaction is only identified among older adults living with their spouse and other family members. The positive association of providing emotional support to adult children with life satisfaction is significant for older adults living with their spouse only. Finally, frequently taking care of grandchildren is related positively to life satisfaction among those living with both spouse and other family members. Our findings provide empirical evidence suggesting that Chinese older adults are still very active in providing support to family members and highlight the beneficial effects of contributory behaviors on individual's life satisfaction. For policy makers, it is important to continuously promote values of contributing behaviors to family and take into account the importance of family ties and family support to older adults when designing new elder care programs.
Cultural competence and psychological empowerment among acute care nurses
Ea, E., & Gilles, S. (2018). In Nursing research critique: A model for excellence. Springer.
Defining Successful Aging: Perceptions From Elderly Chinese in Hawai‘i
Background: This study aims to examine the lay perceptions of successful aging among elderly Chinese in Hawai‘i, the state has the highest life expectancy in the United States. Method: Principal components factor analysis and logistic regression models were used to analyze survey data collected among 136 respondents who were asked to evaluate the importance of 12 successful aging items developed in Asian societies involving the Chinese population. Results: Results from factor analysis reveal three distinct factors out of the 12 items of successful aging—(a) psychosocial and economic well-being, (b) physical well-being, and (c) social support from adult children. The former two factors were perceived as important dimensions of successful aging by most survey participants, and approximately 35%-41% respondents viewed items composing Factor 3 as important. Discussion: Results suggest that elderly Chinese in Hawai‘i have unique perceptions of successful aging that go beyond the Rowe and Kahn’s biomedical model to include more psychosocial components. In addition, their perceptions are similar to but slightly different from perceptions of elderly Chinese in China and Singapore in levels of familism. Our findings indicate cultural variation of successful aging.
Delivering LGBTQ-sensitive care
Members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) community have historically faced prejudices, often resulting in significant health disparities. Critical care nurses have a duty to provide all patients, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity, with the best possible care. This article examines a framework for LGBTQ-sensitive care as well as best practices and additional resources.
Dementia caregiver interventions in Chinese people: A systematic review
Aims: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the characteristics and the efficacy of dementia caregiving interventions among the Chinese population. Background: In recent years, an increasing number of dementia caregiving interventions have been developed for Chinese older adults living in Asia that aim to reduce caregivers’ burden, depression and distress, and enhance quality of life. Little is known, however, on the nature and the efficacy of these interventions. Design: Systematic review with narrative summary. Data sources: We searched four databases for studies published in English between 1 January 1994–30 December 2017. Nineteen studies reported in 23 articles were included in the final analysis. Review methods: We used a set of criteria from the Cochrane Collaboration tool to assess for the risk of bias across studies. Results: We found that interventions varied in length, frequency, approach, and content, making comparisons across studies challenging. Caregivers’ burden, depression, and distress were improved among most included studies. All studies that examined quality of life of caregivers (N = 6) showed improvement. Most of the interventions showed beneficial effects on care recipients’ behavioural symptoms, agitation, and depression; cognitive function, however, failed to improve. Conclusion: Although the review found mixed results on intervention outcomes, the majority of interventions showed a potential to improve the health and well-being of dementia caregivers and care recipients. This review provides suggestions for future dementia caregiving research in the Chinese population, such as inclusion of relevant theoretical frameworks and more rigorous research designs.
Dementia Caregiver Interventions in Chinese Population: A Systematic Review
AimsThe aim of this systematic review was to examine the characteristics and efficacy of dementia caregiving interventions among the Chinese population.BackgroundIn recent years, an increasing number of dementia caregiving interventions have been developed for Chinese older adults living in Asia that aim to reduce caregivers’ burden, depression and distress and enhance quality of life. Little is known, however, on the nature and the efficacy of these interventions.DesignSystematic review with narrative summary.Data SourcesWe searched four databases for studies published in English between 1 January 1994 ‐ 30 December 2017. Nineteen studies reported in twenty‐three articles were included in the final analysis.Review MethodsWe used a set of criteria from the Cochrane Collaboration tool to assess for the risk of bias across studies.ResultsWe found that interventions varied in length, frequency, approach and content, making comparisons across studies challenging. Caregivers’ burden, depression and distress were improved among most included studies. All studies that examined quality of life of caregivers (N=6) showed improvement. Most of the interventions showed beneficial effects on care recipients’ behavioral symptoms, agitation and depression; cognitive function, however, failed to improve.ConclusionAlthough the review found mixed results on intervention outcomes, the majority of interventions showed a potential to improve the health and well‐being of dementia caregivers and care recipients. This review provides suggestions for future dementia caregiving research in the Chinese population, such as inclusion of relevant theoretical frameworks and more rigorous research designs.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Differential expression of genes and differentially perturbed pathways associated with very high evening fatigue in oncology patients receiving chemotherapy
Purpose: Fatigue is the most common symptom associated with cancer and its treatment. Investigation of molecular mechanisms associated with fatigue in oncology patients may identify new therapeutic targets. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationships between gene expression and perturbations in biological pathways and evening fatigue severity in oncology patients who received chemotherapy (CTX). Methods: The Lee Fatigue Scale (LFS) and latent class analysis were used to identify evening fatigue phenotypes. We measured 47,214 ribonucleic acid transcripts from whole blood collected prior to a cycle of CTX. Perturbations in biological pathways associated with differential gene expression were identified from public data sets (i.e., Kyoto Encyclopedia Gene and Genomes, BioCarta). Results: Patients were classified into Moderate (n = 65, mean LFS score 3.1) or Very High (n = 195, mean LFS score 6.4) evening fatigue groups. Compared to patients with Moderate fatigue, patients with Very High fatigue exhibited differential expression of 29 genes. A number of the perturbed pathways identified validated prior mechanistic hypotheses for fatigue, including alterations in immune function, inflammation, neurotransmission, energy metabolism, and circadian rhythms. Based on our findings, energy metabolism was further divided into alterations in carbohydrate metabolism and skeletal muscle energy. Alterations in renal function-related pathways were identified as a potential new mechanism. Conclusions: This study identified differential gene expression and perturbed biological pathways that provide new insights into the multiple and likely inter-related mechanisms associated with evening fatigue in oncology patients.