Publications

Publications

An additional 1,440 minutes: What will you do with an extra day?

Newland, J. A. (2024). Nurse Practitioner, 49(2), 4. 10.1097/01.NPR.0000000000000142

Addressing School Connectedness, Belonging, and Culturally Appropriate Care for Newly Immigrated Students and Families

McCabe, E., Kaskoun, J., Bennett, S., Meadows-Oliver, M., & Schroeder, K. (2024). Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 38(2), 233-239. 10.1016/j.pedhc.2023.10.001
Abstract
Abstract
School connectedness is the degree to which students experience acceptance, inclusion, and care by school personnel and peers. A sense of belonging incorporates an emotional connection to the community. School connectedness and belonging are protective factors that promote student engagement, accomplishment, and community performance. Despite the rise in students from immigrant families in the United States, belonging and connectedness for youth from diverse cultural and linguistic experiences are understudied. School-based nurses, our term, is inclusive of advanced practice pediatric, family, and psychiatric nurse practitioners, are well-positioned to support school connectedness for youth who may encounter hurdles to health care because of cultural and linguistic differences. We present practice suggestions for language, culture, and inclusion using three health conditions experienced by youth: anxiety, asthma, and obesity. School-based nurses and other school personnel who provide linguistic and culturally appropriate care can support students in feeling connected and included in their school communities.

American Association of Nurse Practitioners Research Agenda, 2023-2028

Arends, R., Austin-Ketch, T., Covelli, A. F., Davis, L., Hallas, D., Kalmakis, K., Kirkland-Kyhn, H., Melillo, K. D., O’Reilly-Jacob, M., Parish, A., Rawlett, K., Ricciardi, R., Tracy, C., Winkelman, C., & Whitehouse, C. (2024). Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 36(5), 257-261. 10.1097/JXX.0000000000001011
Abstract
Abstract
This report highlights the 2023-2028 American Association of Nurse Practitioners Research Agenda (AANP-RA), which focuses on the research goals of AANP as an organization and is based on its mission and strategic plan. The purpose of the AANP Research Agenda is to outline research priorities that advance the AANP Strategic Plan and concurrently address gaps in nursing science. American Association of Nurse Practitioners supports research studies that are rigorously designed and conducted using quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods approaches, as well as implementation science with the potential to positively impact both NP practice and patient health outcomes. The AANP-RA strategy is guided by the PEARL acronym: examining NP Practice, Education, policy Advocacy, Research, and Leadership. A discussion of each area is presented along with suggested topics.

Artificial intelligence-based epigenomic, transcriptomic and histologic signatures of tobacco use in oral squamous cell carcinoma

Viet, C. T., Asam, K. R., Yu, G., Dyer, E. C., Kochanny, S., Thomas, C. M., Callahan, N. F., Morlandt, A. B., Cheng, A. C., Patel, A. A., Roden, D. F., Young, S., Melville, J., Shum, J., Walker, P. C., Nguyen, K. K., Kidd, S. N., Lee, S. C., Folk, G. S., … Aouizerat, B. E. (2024). Npj Precision Oncology, 8(1). 10.1038/s41698-024-00605-x
Abstract
Abstract
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) biomarker studies rarely employ multi-omic biomarker strategies and pertinent clinicopathologic characteristics to predict mortality. In this study we determine for the first time a combined epigenetic, gene expression, and histology signature that differentiates between patients with different tobacco use history (heavy tobacco use with ≥10 pack years vs. no tobacco use). Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort (n = 257) and an internal cohort (n = 40), we identify 3 epigenetic markers (GPR15, GNG12, GDNF) and 13 expression markers (IGHA2, SCG5, RPL3L, NTRK1, CD96, BMP6, TFPI2, EFEMP2, RYR3, DMTN, GPD2, BAALC, and FMO3), which are dysregulated in OSCC patients who were never smokers vs. those who have a ≥ 10 pack year history. While mortality risk prediction based on smoking status and clinicopathologic covariates alone is inaccurate (c-statistic = 0.57), the combined epigenetic/expression and histologic signature has a c-statistic = 0.9409 in predicting 5-year mortality in OSCC patients.

Asian Cohort for Alzheimer's Disease (ACAD) pilot study on genetic and non-genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease among Asian Americans and Canadians

Ho, P. C., Yu, W. H., Tee, B. L., Lee, W. P., Li, C., Gu, Y., Yokoyama, J. S., Reyes-Dumeyer, D., Choi, Y. B., Yang, H. S., Vardarajan, B. N., Tzuang, M., Lieu, K., Lu, A., Faber, K. M., Potter, Z. D., Revta, C., Kirsch, M., McCallum, J., … Wang, L. S. (2024). Alzheimer’s and Dementia, 20(3), 2058-2071. 10.1002/alz.13611
Abstract
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Clinical research in Alzheimer's disease (AD) lacks cohort diversity despite being a global health crisis. The Asian Cohort for Alzheimer's Disease (ACAD) was formed to address underrepresentation of Asians in research, and limited understanding of how genetics and non-genetic/lifestyle factors impact this multi-ethnic population. METHODS: The ACAD started fully recruiting in October 2021 with one central coordination site, eight recruitment sites, and two analysis sites. We developed a comprehensive study protocol for outreach and recruitment, an extensive data collection packet, and a centralized data management system, in English, Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese. RESULTS: ACAD has recruited 606 participants with an additional 900 expressing interest in enrollment since program inception. DISCUSSION: ACAD's traction indicates the feasibility of recruiting Asians for clinical research to enhance understanding of AD risk factors. ACAD will recruit > 5000 participants to identify genetic and non-genetic/lifestyle AD risk factors, establish blood biomarker levels for AD diagnosis, and facilitate clinical trial readiness. HIGHLIGHTS: The Asian Cohort for Alzheimer's Disease (ACAD) promotes awareness of under-investment in clinical research for Asians. We are recruiting Asian Americans and Canadians for novel insights into Alzheimer's disease. We describe culturally appropriate recruitment strategies and data collection protocol. ACAD addresses challenges of recruitment from heterogeneous Asian subcommunities. We aim to implement a successful recruitment program that enrolls across three Asian subcommunities.

Assessing the relationship between census tract rurality and severe maternal morbidity in California (1997-2018)

Berkowitz, R. L., Kan, P., Gao, X., Hailu, E. M., Board, C., Lyndon, A., Mujahid, M., & Carmichael, S. L. (2024). Journal of Rural Health, 40(3), 531-541. 10.1111/jrh.12814
Abstract
Abstract
Purpose: Recent studies have demonstrated an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) for people living in rural versus urban counties. Studies have not considered rurality at the more nuanced subcounty census-tract level. This study assessed the relationship between census-tract-level rurality and SMM for birthing people in California. Methods: We used linked vital statistics and hospital discharge records for births between 1997 and 2018 in California. SMM was defined by at least 1 of 21 potentially fatal conditions and lifesaving procedures. Rural-Urban Commuting Area codes were used to characterize census tract rurality dichotomously (2-category) and at 4 levels (4-category). Covariates included sociocultural-demographic, pregnancy-related, and neighborhood-level factors. We ran a series of mixed-effects logistic regression models with tract-level clustering, reporting risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the STROBE reporting guidelines. Findings: Of 10,091,415 births, 1.1% had SMM. Overall, 94.3% of participants resided in urban/metropolitan and 5.7% in rural tracts (3.9% micropolitan, 0.9% small town, 0.8% rural). In 2-category models, the risk of SMM was 10% higher for birthing people in rural versus urban tracts (95% CI: 6%, 13%). In 4-category models, the risk of SMM was 16% higher in micropolitan versus metropolitan tracts (95% CI: 12%, 21%). Conclusion: The observed rurality and SMM relationship was driven by living in a micropolitan versus metropolitan tract. Increased risk may result from resource access inequities within suburban areas. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering rurality at a subcounty level to understand locality-related inequities in the risk of SMM.

Association between time-of-day for eating, exercise, and sleep with blood pressure in adults with elevated blood pressure or hypertension: A systematic review

Keiser, T., Katz, S., Robson, S. M., Greaney, J. L., Healy, S., Malone, S. K., Farrahi, V., & Patterson, F. (2024). Journal of Hypertension, 42(6), 951-960. 10.1097/HJH.0000000000003732
Abstract
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to synthesize results from studies examining the association between time-of-day for eating, exercise, and sleep with blood pressure (BP) in adults with elevated BP or hypertension. Six databases were searched for relevant publications from which 789 were identified. Ten studies met inclusion criteria. Four studies examined time-of-day for eating, five examined time-of-day for exercise, and one examined time-of-day for sleep and their associations with BP. Results suggested that later time-of-day for eating (n = 2/4) and later sleep mid-point (n = 1/1) were significantly related to higher BP in multivariable models, whereas morning (n = 3/5) and evening (n = 4/5) exercise were associated with significantly lower BP. Although this small body of work is limited by a lack of prospective, randomized controlled study designs and underutilization of 24 h ambulatory BP assessment, these results provide preliminary, hypothesis-generating support for the independent role of time-of-day for eating, exercise, and sleep with lower BP.

The Association Between Trajectories of Perceived Unmet Needs for Home and Community-Based Services and Life Satisfaction Among Chinese Older Adults: The Moderating Effect of Psychological Resilience

Wang, H., Liu, H., Wu, B., & Hai, L. (2024). Research on Aging, 46(2), 139-152. 10.1177/01640275231203608
Abstract
Abstract
This study examined whether trajectories of perceived unmet needs for Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS) were associated with life satisfaction among Chinese older adults and whether the association was moderated by psychological resilience. Data came from five waves (2005-2018) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Latent class growth analysis revealed three distinct trajectories of perceived unmet HCBS needs: “increasing” (n = 977, 36.24%), “persistent” (n = 570, 21.14%), and “decreasing” (n = 1149, 42.62%). Multiple regression estimates showed that the increasing group was associated with lower life satisfaction, and the association was moderated by psychological resilience, especially for older adults who were male, living in rural, and oldest-old. Results indicate that inequalities in cumulative exposure to perceived unmet HCBS needs may further lead to increasing inequalities in life satisfaction. Interventions focused on minimizing the provision-need gap of HCBS and enhancing personal resilience should be considered to improve the life satisfaction of older adults.

Association between visit frequency, continuity of care, and pharmacy fill adherence in heart failure patients

Hamo, C. E., Mukhopadhyay, A., Li, X., Zheng, Y., Kronish, I. M., Chunara, R., Dodson, J., Adhikari, S., & Blecker, S. (2024). American Heart Journal, 273, 53-60. 10.1016/j.ahj.2024.04.003
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Despite advances in medical therapy for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), major gaps in medication adherence to guideline-directed medical therapies (GDMT) remain. Greater continuity of care may impact medication adherence and reduced hospitalizations. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults with a diagnosis of HF and EF ≤40% with ≥2 outpatient encounters between January 1, 2017 and January 10, 2021, prescribed ≥1 of the following GDMT: 1) Beta Blocker, 2) Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor/Angiotensin Receptor Blocker/Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor, 3) Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist, 4) Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor. Continuity of care was calculated using the Bice-Boxerman Continuity of Care Index (COC) and the Usual Provider of Care (UPC) index, categorized by quantile. The primary outcome was adherence to GDMT, defined as average proportion of days covered ≥80% over 1 year. Secondary outcomes included all-cause and HF hospitalization at 1-year. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for demographics, insurance status, comorbidity index, number of visits and neighborhood SES index. Results: Overall, 3,971 individuals were included (mean age 72 years (SD 14), 71% male, 66% White race). In adjusted analyses, compared to individuals in the highest COC quartile, individuals in the third COC quartile had higher odds of GDMT adherence (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.53, P = .024). UPC tertile was not associated with adherence (all P > .05). Compared to the highest quantiles, the lowest UPC and COC quantiles had higher odds of all-cause (UPC: OR 1.53, 95%CI 1.23-1.91; COC: OR 2.54, 95%CI 1.94-3.34) and HF (UPC: OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.23-2.67; COC: OR 1.77, 95%CI 1.09-2.95) hospitalizations. Conclusions: Continuity of care was not associated with GDMT adherence among patients with HFrEF but lower continuity of care was associated with increased all-cause and HF-hospitalizations.

Attitudes Toward the Uptake of Combination HIV Prevention Methods Among Young Black and Latino Heterosexual Couples Living in New York City: A Qualitative Study

Lanier, Y., Lui, N., Zhong, J., Rivera-Cash, D., Cornelius, T., & Stewart, J. M. (2024). Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 35(3), 281-293. 10.1097/JNC.0000000000000464
Abstract
Abstract
Couple-based HIV interventions that increase uptake of two or more effective biomedical HIV prevention methods may be a promising HIV prevention strategy for young Black and Latino heterosexual couples. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured individual interviews with 23 Black and Latino adolescent and young adult heterosexual couples that explored their attitudes toward using combination HIV prevention methods (CHPMs). A qualitative hybrid thematic analysis approach was used to identify key themes. Themes included: (a) attitudes that encouraged uptake—CHPMs increased assurance of safety against HIV/sexually transmitted infections and (b) attitudes that impeded uptake—CHPMs are too much to do and are not appropriate for serious relationships. Although Black and Latino adolescents and young adults may recognize the combined protective benefits of using multiple HIV prevention methods, personal and relational considerations play an instrumental role in uptake of CHPMs.

Awareness of Disease Status among Patients with Cancer: An Integrative Review

Finlayson, C. S., Rosa, W. E., Mathew, S., Applebaum, A., Squires, A., & Fu, M. R. (2024). Cancer Nursing, 47(3), 189-197. 10.1097/NCC.0000000000001170
Abstract
Abstract
Background As the quality of cancer care improves, oncology patients face a rapidly increasing number of treatment options. Thus, it is vital that they are full and active partners in the treatment decision-making process. Awareness of disease status has been investigated in the literature; it has been inconsistently conceptualized and operationalized. Objective The aim of this integrative review was to develop a conceptual definition and model of the awareness of disease status among patients with cancer. Methods Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review methodology guided this article. We obtained data through a systematic search of 8 databases. Key terms utilized were awareness, perception, truth disclosure, diagnosis, prognosis, terminal illness, status, neoplasm, and metastasis. Dates through January 2020 were searched to capture all relevant articles. Sixty-nine articles met inclusion criteria. Results The integrative review methodology guided the development of a conceptual definition and model. The concept of "awareness of disease status"was defined as the individual patient's understanding of being diagnosed and treated for cancer based on the multifactorial components of individual patient characteristics and contextually driven communication practices of healthcare providers. This understanding is dynamic and changes throughout the disease trajectory. Conclusion These findings will inform consistency in the literature. Such consistency may improve person-centered clinical communication, care planning practices, and, ultimately, cancer-related outcomes. Implications for Practice With a greater understanding of the complexity of patients' awareness of disease status, nurses will be able to guide their patients to make informed decisions throughout their disease trajectory.

Awareness of Disease Status Among Patients With Cancer: An Integrative Review

Finlayson, C. S., Rosa, W. E., Mathew, S., Applebaum, A., Squires, A., & Fu, M. R. (2024). Cancer Nursing, 47(3), 189-197. 10.1097/NCC.0000000000001170
Abstract
Abstract
BACKGROUND: As the quality of cancer care improves, oncology patients face a rapidly increasing number of treatment options. Thus, it is vital that they are full and active partners in the treatment decision-making process. Awareness of disease status has been investigated in the literature; it has been inconsistently conceptualized and operationalized.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this integrative review was to develop a conceptual definition and model of the awareness of disease status among patients with cancer.METHODS: Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review methodology guided this article. We obtained data through a systematic search of 8 databases. Key terms utilized were awareness, perception, truth disclosure, diagnosis, prognosis, terminal illness, status, neoplasm, and metastasis. Dates through January 2020 were searched to capture all relevant articles. Sixty-nine articles met inclusion criteria.RESULTS: The integrative review methodology guided the development of a conceptual definition and model. The concept of "awareness of disease status" was defined as the individual patient's understanding of being diagnosed and treated for cancer based on the multifactorial components of individual patient characteristics and contextually driven communication practices of healthcare providers. This understanding is dynamic and changes throughout the disease trajectory.CONCLUSION: These findings will inform consistency in the literature. Such consistency may improve person-centered clinical communication, care planning practices, and, ultimately, cancer-related outcomes.IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: With a greater understanding of the complexity of patients' awareness of disease status, nurses will be able to guide their patients to make informed decisions throughout their disease trajectory.

Blood Pressure Measurements Obtained by Community-Dwelling Adults Are Similar to Nurse-Obtained Measurements: The SMART-BP Validate Study

Liu, X., Slone, S. E., Chen, Y., Yeboah-Kordieh, Y., Alharthi, A., Amihere, J., Moyo-Songonuga, S., Lane, T., Ostchega, Y., Brady, T. M., Himmelfarb, C. R., & Commodore-Mensah, Y. (2024). American Journal of Hypertension, 37(5), 334-341. 10.1093/ajh/hpae001
Abstract
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Self-measured blood pressure (SMBP) is an effective strategy for managing and controlling hypertension. However, uncertainty regarding patients' ability to accurately measure their blood pressure (BP) contributes to treatment inertia. Therefore, we compared BP measurements with the Omron HEM-9210T device obtained by nurses and community-dwelling adults after training. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a simulated home environment at an academic institution. After a 5-min rest, a trained nurse measured a participant's BP twice at a 1-min interval. The participants then ambulated at their usual pace for 2 min. Next, they were asked to rest for 5 min, during which each individual watched a 3-min video on SMBP. Following the rest, the participants obtained two readings at a 1-min interval. RESULTS: We recruited 102 community-dwelling adults with a mean age of 54 (±14) years; 59% female, 88% Black race, and 63% with a hypertension diagnosis. Half (n=51) had a home BP monitor. Overall, there were no significant differences between nurse-and participant-obtained systolic BP (mean difference [MD]:-1.1; standard deviation [SD]: 8.0; P=0.178) or diastolic BP (MD:-0.9; SD: 5.5; P=0.111). Participants who used an extra-large cuff had higher self-measured diastolic BP (MD:-2.9; SD: 4.5; P=0.010). All participants demonstrated satisfactory SMBP skills after the training. CONCLUSIONS: Community-dwelling adults can accurately measure BP after a 3-min video training. Integrating SMBP training into patient encounters may result in reliable home BP measurements, improving hypertension management and clinical decision making.

Cannabis use trajectories over time in relation to minority stress and gender among sexual and gender minority people

Flentje, A., Sunder, G., Ceja, A., Lisha, N. E., Neilands, T. B., Aouizerat, B. E., Lubensky, M. E., Capriotti, M. R., Dastur, Z., Lunn, M. R., & Obedin-Maliver, J. (2024). Addictive Behaviors, 157. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2024.108079
Abstract
Abstract
Substance use disparities among sexual and gender minority (SGM) people are attributed to minority stress, but few studies have examined minority stress and cannabis use over time or investigated differences in cannabis use trajectories by less-studied gender subgroups. We examined if longitudinal cannabis use trajectories are related to baseline minority stressors and if gender differences persisted after accounting for minority stress. Cannabis use risk was measured annually over four years (2017–2021) within a longitudinal cohort study of SGM adults in the United States (N = 11,813). Discrimination and victimization, internalized stigma, disclosure and concealment, and safety and acceptance comprised minority stress (n = 5,673). Latent class growth curve mixture models identified five cannabis use trajectories: ‘low or no risk’, ‘low moderate risk’, ‘high moderate risk’, ‘steep risk increase’, and ‘highest risk’. Participants who reported past-year discrimination and/or victimization at baseline had greater odds of membership in any cannabis risk category compared to the ‘low risk’ category (odds ratios [OR] 1.17–1.33). Internalized stigma was related to ‘high moderate’ and ‘highest risk’ cannabis use (ORs 1.27–1.38). After accounting for minority stress, compared to cisgender men, gender expansive people and transgender men had higher odds of ‘low moderate risk’ (ORs 1.61, 1.67) or ‘high moderate risk’ (ORs 2.09, 1.99), and transgender men had higher odds of ‘highest risk’ (OR 2.36) cannabis use. This study indicates minority stress is related to prospective cannabis use risk trajectories among SGM people, and transgender men and gender expansive people have greater odds of trajectories reflecting cannabis use risk.

Cardiovascular Implications of Sleep Disorders Beyond Sleep Apnea

Park, J. A., Yoon, J. E., Liu, X., Chang, Y., Maiolino, G., Pengo, M. F., Lin, G. M., & Kwon, Y. (2024). Current Sleep Medicine Reports. 10.1007/s40675-024-00302-y
Abstract
Abstract
Purpose of review: Sleep is crucial for human health and life. There is still limited attention to the association between sleep disorders beyond sleep apnea and cardiovascular (CV) health. We investigated the current evidence between non-respiratory sleep disorders and CV health. Recent findings: Current evidence suggests an important association between sleep duration, circadian rhythm, insomnia, disorders of hypersomnolence and CV health. Sleep-related movement disorders exhibit a moderate association with CV health. Further research is needed to explore the effects of each sleep disorder on CV health. Summary: Given the close association between non-respiratory sleep disorders and CV health, it is crucial to recognize and address sleep disorders in patients with a high CV risk.

Care partners experience of an oral health intervention for individuals with mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia using behavior change technique: A qualitative study

Bryant, A. L., Hirschey, R., Caiola, C. E., Chan, Y. N., Cho, Y., Plassman, B. L., Wu, B., Anderson, R. A., & Bailey, D. E. (2024). Geriatric Nursing, 56, 40-45. 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2023.12.021
Abstract
Abstract
Oral health declines in older adults with cognitive impairment. We aimed to improve oral hygiene outcomes for individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia (MD) by fostering behavior changes among carepartners assisting them. We used qualitative data of verbatim transcripts of coaching sessions with carepartners (n = 17 dyads:10 dyads for MCI, 7 dyads for MD). Directed and emergent coding were used to understand behavior change techniques (BCTs). BCTs were compared with carepartners of participants with MCI and MD. Most frequently used BCTs in both groups: prompts and cues, instruction on how to perform the behavior, review behavioral goal, and problem solving. Different BCTs emerged in study: social support-unspecified of the MCI group and credible source for MD group. Findings clarified active intervention components, common BCTs used by carepartners, and different BCT approaches for both participants. Findings help to elucidate the mechanisms of changes in individuals’ behaviors in these interventions.

Caring for patients with life-threatening hemoptysis

Chen, L., & Fasolka, B. (2024). Nursing, 54, 44-47. 10.1097/01.NURSE.0000997996.22052.79
Abstract
Abstract
Life-threatening hemoptysis (formerly called massive hemoptysis), though relatively uncommon, imposes significant mortality risks. This article discusses the etiology, clinical presentation, assessment, treatment, and nursing interventions to promote effective clinical management of patients with this condition.

Computationally inferred cell-type specific epigenome-wide DNA methylation analysis unveils distinct methylation patterns among immune cells for HIV infection in three cohorts

Zhang, X., Hu, Y., Vandenhoudt, R. E., Yan, C., Marconi, V. C., Cohen, M. H., Wang, Z., Justice, A. C., Aouizerat, B. E., & Xu, K. (2024). PLoS Pathogens, 20(3). 10.1371/journal.ppat.1012063
Abstract
Abstract
Background Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have identified CpG sites associated with HIV infection in blood cells in bulk, which offer limited knowledge of cell-type specific methylation patterns associated with HIV infection. In this study, we aim to identify differentially methylated CpG sites for HIV infection in immune cell types: CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, B cells, Natural Killer (NK) cells, and monocytes. Methods Applying a computational deconvolution method, we performed a cell-type based EWAS for HIV infection in three independent cohorts (Ntotal = 1,382). DNA methylation in blood or in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was profiled by an array-based method and then deconvoluted by Tensor Composition Analysis (TCA). The TCA-computed CpG methylation in each cell type was first benchmarked by bisulfite DNA methylation capture sequencing in a subset of the samples. Cell-type EWAS of HIV infection was performed in each cohort separately and a meta-EWAS was conducted followed by gene set enrichment analysis. Results The meta-analysis unveiled a total of 2,021 cell-type unique significant CpG sites for five inferred cell types. Among these inferred cell-type unique CpG sites, the concordance rate in the three cohorts ranged from 96% to 100% in each cell type. Cell-type level meta-EWAS unveiled distinct patterns of HIV-associated differential CpG methylation, where 74% of CpG sites were unique to individual cell types (false discovery rate, FDR <0.05). CD4+ T-cells had the largest number of unique HIV-associated CpG sites (N = 1,624) compared to any other cell type. Genes harboring significant CpG sites are involved in immunity and HIV pathogenesis (e.g. CD4+ T-cells: NLRC5, CX3CR1, B cells: IFI44L, NK cells: IL12R, monocytes: IRF7), and in oncogenesis (e.g. CD4+ T-cells: BCL family, PRDM16, monocytes: PRDM16, PDCD1LG2). HIV-associated CpG sites were enriched among genes involved in HIV pathogenesis and oncogenesis that were enriched among interferon-α and -γ, TNF-α, inflammatory response, and apoptotic pathways. Conclusion Our findings uncovered computationally inferred cell-type specific modifications in the host epigenome for people with HIV that contribute to the growing body of evidence regarding HIV pathogenesis.

Dementia-literate informal caregivers: An evolutionary concept analysis

Fernandez Cajavilca, M., & Sadarangani, T. (2024). Nursing Outlook, 72(5). 10.1016/j.outlook.2024.102224
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Previous concept analyses have not conceptualized an evidence-based definition of the concept of dementia literacy. Methods: Rodger's evolutionary method was used to conceptualize dementia literacy among informal caregivers of persons living with dementia (PLWD) in the United States. A comprehensive search across four databases and a thorough review process resulted in 22 relevant articles between 2011 and 2023. Discussion: Dementia literacy is defined as the ability to acquire dementia-related knowledge to inform decision-making, self-identify gaps in caregiving support, and secure access to necessary resources to enable long-term care, all while maintaining relationships with an interdisciplinary team of specialized providers. Conclusion: The nursing profession can promote dementia literacy by recognizing the needs of racial and ethnic groups, the complexity of culture and language, and being mindful of potential implicit bias toward informal caregivers who are working diligently to be prepared and proactive for PLWD.

Dementia-Related Disparities in Adult Day Centers: Results of a Bivariate Analysis

Bofao, J., Bergh, M., Zheng, A., & Sadarangani, T. (2024). Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 50(4), 42-47. 10.3928/00989134-20240313-01
Abstract
Abstract
PURPOSE: Adult day services (ADS) are a valuable resource for people living with Alzheimer’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (AD/ADRD) and serve a large population of late-life immigrants, often with limited English proficiency (LEP). This secondary data analysis examined potential disparities in diagnosis, dementia severity, medical complexity, and dementia-related behavioral problems in persons with AD/ADRD with LEP within the ADS setting. METHOD: The current study used data from TurboTAR, the electronic health record for ADS in California. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine differences in clinical management for those with and without LEP. RESULTS: Of 3,053 participants included in the study, 42.3% had LEP. Participants with LEP had higher rates of emergency department use and medication mismanagement. However, due to non-standard data collection, there was a significant amount of missing data on language preference (38.1%) and race/ethnicity (46.5%). Although these findings suggest LEP may play a role in the clinical management of persons with AD/ADRD in ADS, missing data caused by lack of standardized collection compromise the results. CONCLUSION: It is essential to improve data collection practices in ADS on language, race, and ethnicity to help identify health disparities and promote equitable care for marginalized older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 50(4), 42-47.]

Dental Caries and Preventive Dental Visits Among Children in the U.S.: The Impact of Race/Ethnicity and Immigration

Luo, H., Wu, B., Wu, Y., & Moss, M. E. (2024). AJPM Focus, 3(4). 10.1016/j.focus.2024.100230
Abstract
Abstract
Introduction: National data on dental caries and dental service use among immigrant children in U.S. are limited. It is not known whether race/ethnicity would interact with immigration status to increase these disparities. Using a nationally representative sample, this study assessed the interaction effects of immigrant generation status and race/ethnicity on dental caries and dental visits among children in the U.S. Methods: Data were from the 2020 and 2021 National Survey of Children's Health. All data were self-reported by parents/guardians. The 2 outcomes were (1) dental caries (yes/no) in the past 12 months and (2) preventive dental visits (yes/no) in the past 12 months. Racial/ethnic groups included non-Hispanic White, Black, Hispanics, and Asian Americans. The analytical sample included 66,167 children aged 2–17 years, including 1,243 first-generation immigrant children; 11,017 second-generation immigrant children; and 53,907 nonimmigrant children. Study authors ran separate multiple logistic regression models for the 2 outcome variables. All analyses accounted for the survey design of National Survey of Children's Health. Results: First-generation immigrant children were more likely to have dental caries than nonimmigrant children (AOR=1.44). The interaction of race/ethnicity and immigrant generation status was significant (p=0.04) in the preventive dental visits model, indicating increased challenges in getting dental visits among minority immigrant children in comparison with that among non-Hispanic White immigrant children, especially among first-generation immigrant children of Asian Americans (AOR=0.41) and non-Hispanic Black immigrant children (AOR=0.37). Conclusions: First-generation immigrant children were less likely to see a dentist and more likely to have dental caries than nonimmigrants. Moreover, first-generation immigrant children from minority racial/ethnic groups were the least likely to seek dental services. To further reduce disparities in oral health and dental use among children in the U.S., culturally sensitive health promotion is warranted to improve oral health literacy and reduce barriers to dental care for immigrants, especially immigrant children of the minority groups.

Design and rationale of the cardiometabolic health program linked with community health workers and mobile health telemonitoring to reduce health disparities (LINKED-HEARTS) program

Commodore-Mensah, Y., Chen, Y., Ogungbe, O., Liu, X., Metlock, F. E., Carson, K. A., Echouffo-Tcheugui, J. B., Ibe, C., Crews, D., Cooper, L. A., & Himmelfarb, C. D. (2024). American Heart Journal, 275, 9-20. 10.1016/j.ahj.2024.05.008
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Hypertension and diabetes are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Disparities in hypertension control persist among Black and Hispanic adults and persons living in poverty in the United States. The “LINKED-HEARTS Program” (a Cardiometabolic Health Program LINKED with Community Health WorkErs and Mobile HeAlth TelemonitoRing To reduce Health DisparitieS”), is a multi-level intervention that includes home blood pressure (BP) monitoring (HBPM), blood glucose telemonitoring, and team-based care. This study aims to examine the effect of the LINKED-HEARTS Program intervention in improving BP control compared to enhanced usual care (EUC) and to evaluate the reach, adoption, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of the program. Methods: Using a hybrid type I effectiveness-implementation design, 428 adults with uncontrolled hypertension (systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg) and diabetes or CKD will be recruited from 18 primary care practices, including community health centers, in Maryland. Using a cluster-randomized trial design, practices are randomly assigned to the LINKED-HEARTS intervention arm or EUC arm. Participants in the LINKED-HEARTS intervention arm receive training on HBPM, BP and glucose telemonitoring, and community health worker and pharmacist telehealth visits on lifestyle modification and medication management over 12 months. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants with controlled BP (<140/90 mm Hg) at 12 months. Conclusions: The study tests a multi-level intervention to control multiple chronic diseases. Findings from the study may be leveraged to reduce disparities in the management and control of chronic diseases and make primary care more responsive to the needs of underserved populations. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT05321368.

Developing and testing a web-based platform for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence support among adolescents and young adults (AYA) living with HIV

Dunn Navarra, A. M., Gormley, M., Liang, E., Loughran, C., Vorderstrasse, A., Garcia, D. R., Rosenberg, M. G., Fletcher, J., & Goldsamt, L. A. (2024). PEC Innovation, 4. 10.1016/j.pecinn.2024.100263
Abstract
Abstract
Objective: Describe the development and testing of a web-based platform for antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence support among HIV+ adolescents and young adults (AYA) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods: A seven-member multi-disciplinary team operationalized the flat, password protected, web-based platform. Manualized protocols guided the objectives and content for each of the eight web-based sessions. Team members evaluated usability and content validity. Client satisfaction and perceived ease of use was evaluated with the first ten HIV+ AYA participants. Results: The web-based platform was developed, evaluated, refined, implemented and pilot tested between September 2020 to April 2022. Usability was rated as high; the evaluation of content validity showed an excellent fit between session content and objectives. HIV+ AYA participants (mean age = 24.2 years) were satisfied with the quality, type, and amount of support/education received, and found the platform easy to use, operate, and navigate. Average time spent per session was 6.5 min. Conclusion: Findings support the usability, validity, acceptability, and feasibility of this web-based platform for ART adherence support among HIV+ AYA. Innovation: Our research and findings are responsive to research gaps and the need for transparency in the methodological development and testing of web-based control arms for ART adherence support among HIV+ AYA.

The development of social capital in a peer-led mHealth cognitive behavioral antiretroviral therapy adherence intervention for HIV + adolescents and young adults

Goldsamt, L. A., Liang, E., Handschuh, C., & Navarra, A. M. (2024). AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS HIV, 36(4), 425-431. 10.1080/09540121.2023.2262981
Abstract
Abstract
Adherence Connection for Counseling, Education, and Support (ACCESS)-I is a peer-led mHealth antiretroviral therapy adherence intervention for adolescents and young adults living with HIV who are in treatment but have detectable viral loads. Participants received five online sessions with peer health coaches who followed a structured intervention manual. Peers maintained intervention fidelity but also engaged in casual discussion that was not directly related to ART adherence or HIV. We conducted a qualitative analysis of the casual interactions that occurred during the ACCESS I intervention. Sessions were transcribed and coded, and these casual interactions were then coded into 10 subcodes to document their content, and also coded for three types of social capital–emotional, informational, and instrumental. Emotional and Informational social capital codes were the most common, while instrumental codes were rare. Activities was the most common topic overall, while encouragement was more common in emotional social capital narratives and personal experience was more common in informational social capital narratives. These casual interactions may strengthen peer-participant relationships, building social capital that could then be used to encourage positive behavior change. Although social capital was not directly measured, these analyses illustrate the value of attending to seemingly casual interactions in peer-led interventions.

A dimensional analysis of nursing unit culture

Leep-Lazar, K., & Stimpfel, A. W. (2024). Journal of Advanced Nursing, 80(7), 2746-2757. 10.1111/jan.15985
Abstract
Abstract
Aim(s): Organizational culture has been studied for over four decades among nurses, across countries and contexts. However, wide variation exists in how the concept has been defined and at what level of the organization it is measured. The aim of this study was to use a dimensional analysis to conduct a conceptual synthesis of unit culture from a nursing perspective. Design: Dimensional analysis, rooted in grounded theory methodology, was used to describe unit culture from a nursing perspective. Methods: A literature search was conducted in April 2022. Inclusion criteria were (1) peer review publications, (2) used the term ‘unit culture’ or ‘ward culture’, (3) references nurses' role in unit culture, (4) published in the last 20 years and (5) written in English. One hundred fifteen articles met inclusion criteria, but dimensional saturation was researched after coding 24 articles. Results: Findings were synthesized into four core dimensions and 10 subdimensions. Dimensions of unit culture included customs (practice norms, communication and prioritization), shared beliefs (assumptions, values and attitudes), hierarchy (social and informational) and atmosphere (emotional climate and collaboration). Conditions that shape unit culture include individual nurse characteristics, working conditions, unit policies/procedures and leadership. Unit culture impacts nurse work experiences and decision-making processes, which can affect outcomes including nurse wellbeing, practice behaviours and adherence to unit policies. Conclusions: Identifying the dimensions of unit culture helps to bring clarity to a concept that is not well defined in existing literature. Impact: This model of unit culture can be used to guide development of new instruments to measure unit culture or guide researchers in utilizing existing measures. Developing measures specific to unit culture are warranted to strengthen researchers' ability to assess how changing conditions of a unit (e.g. leadership, workload) changes unit culture and its related outcomes. Patient or Public Contribution: No Patient or Public Contribution.