Lloyd A Goldsamt


Lloyd A Goldsamt headshot

Lloyd A Goldsamt

Senior Research Scientist

1 212 998 5315

433 First Ave
Room 739
New York, NY 10010
United States

Lloyd A Goldsamt's additional information

Lloyd A. Goldsamt, PhD, is a senior research scientist at NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing and a licensed clinical psychologist in New York State. He has conducted NIH-funded research and community-based evaluations for more than 25 years. His primary research area is HIV and STI prevention among high-risk youth populations, including men who have sex with men, male sex workers, and injection drug users. Dr. Goldsamt is also on the faculty of the Fordham University HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute and the Associate Director of the Dissemination Core at the Center for Drug Use and HIV/HCV Research in the NYU School of Global Public Health.

Dr. Goldsamt has conducted training and program evaluations locally and nationally, focusing on drug courts and community-based organizations working to prevent HIV and drug abuse. He is currently the Evaluator for the Brooklyn Treatment Court, an Evaluator on an Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) project developing nationwide Juvenile Drug Court Learning Collaboratives, and an Evaluation Consultant for the OJJDP Opioid Affected Youth Initiative.

Dr. Goldsamt holds a PhD and MA in clinical psychology from the State University of New York at Stony Brook and a BA from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

PhD, Clinical Psychology - State University of New York at Stony Brook
MA - State University of New York at Stony Brook
BA - University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Substance use

Faculty Honors Awards

Phi Beta Kappa


Emotional distress among frontline research staff

Nguyen, M., Goldsamt, L., Mazibuko, N., Zondo, S., & Fielding-Miller, R. (2021). Social Science and Medicine, 281. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114101
Public health research frequently deals with sensitive topics. A growing body of evidence suggests that frontline researchers who elicit or process participant's traumatic experiences are themselves at risk of developing emotional distress or secondary trauma from daily immersion in these data. This both threatens a study's data quality and calls into question how the harms and benefits of conducting research are distributed across a study team. The objective of this study was to explore how frontline research staff in Eswatini experience and process emotional distress as part of their daily work and to describe potential strategies for resilience and coping using qualitative research methods. We conducted 21 in-depth interviews with informants who had worked in data collection, data entry, and transcription on a number of sensitive topics, including HIV, sex work, and LGBT health. We found that emotional distress is a salient experience among frontline research staff working in Eswatini. This distress stems from conducting research against a generalized backdrop of high rates of HIV, violence, and poverty, particularly since research staff are drawn from affected communities and have their own firsthand knowledge of the phenomena they are studying. Moreover, the qualities study staff are often hired for – empathy, compassion, and emotional intelligence – are also traits that may increase their likelihood of feeling distressed by the narratives they encounter in their work. The workplace can serve as a prism, exacerbating or potentially mitigating these risks into harm at the individual, interpersonal, and community level. While not all study teams may have access to formal mental health services, several informants recommended incorporating regular meetings with a trained counselor as part of the overall project. Others recommended building time for team-building or debriefing conversations into the normal workweek, a strategy that would address both the issue of workload and could bolster the already existent strategy of relying on team members for mental health support.

Hospital ethical climate associated with the professional quality of life among nurses during the early stage of COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan, China: A cross-sectional study

Jiang, W., Zhao, X., Jiang, J., Zhou, Q., Yang, J., Chen, Y., Goldsamt, L., Williams, A. B., & Li, X. (2021). International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 8(3), 310-317. 10.1016/j.ijnss.2021.05.002
Objectives: To describe the professional quality of life and explore its associated factors among nurses coming from other areas of China to assist with the anti-epidemic fight in Wuhan and especially examine whether the hospital ethical climate was independently associated with nurses’ professional quality of life. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted from March 2020 to April 2020. The nurses working in Wuhan from the other parts of China were the target population. The Professional Quality of Life Scale version 5, the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey, and a basic information sheet were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple linear regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: In total, 236 nurses participated in this study, and 219 valid questionnaires were analyzed. The average age of the participants was 31.2 ± 5.0 years. Most nurses were female (176/219; 80.4%) and married (145/219; 66.2%). In term of professional quality of life, nurses reported moderate (129/219; 58.9%) to high (90/219; 41.1%) levels of compassion satisfaction, low (119/219; 54.3%) to moderate (100/219; 45.7%) levels of burnout, and low (67/219; 36.0%) to high (10/219; 4.6%) levels of secondary traumatic stress. Regarding hospital ethical climate, nurses reported moderately high hospital ethical climates with an average score of 4.46. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, the multiple linear regression models showed that the hospital ethical climate subscale of “relationship with physicians” was independently associated with the compassion satisfaction (β = 0.533, P < 0.01) and burnout (β = −0.237, P < 0.05); the hospital ethical climate subscale of “relationship with peers” (β = −0.191, P < 0.01) was independently associated with the secondary traumatic stress. Conclusions: During the early stage of the pandemic, nurses demonstrated moderate to high level of compassion satisfaction, low to moderate level of burnout, and all nurses experienced secondary traumatic stress. Nurses perceived a high level of hospital ethical climate, and the perceived hospital ethical climate played an important role in promoting nurses’ professional quality of life during a life-threatening infectious disease pandemic.

How Black and Latino young men who have sex with men in the United States experience and engage with eligibility criteria and recruitment practices: implications for the sustainability of community-based research

Philbin, M. M., Guta, A., Wurtz, H., Kinnard, E. N., Bradley-Perrin, I., & Goldsamt, L. (2021). Critical Public Health. 10.1080/09581596.2021.1918329
Research recruitment, eligibility, and who chooses to participate shape the resulting data and knowledge, which together inform interventions, treatment, and programming. Patterns of research participation are particularly salient at this moment given emerging biomedical prevention paradigms. This paper explores the perspectives of Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (BL-YMSM) regarding research recruitment and eligibility criteria, how their experiences influence willingness to enroll in a given study, and implications for the veracity and representativeness of resulting data. We examine inclusion and recruitment as a complex assemblage, which should not be reduced to its parts. From April to July 2018, we conducted in-depth interviews with 30 BL-YMSM, ages 18–29, in New York City. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Black and Latino YMSM’s responses unveiled tensions between researchers’, recruiters’, and participants’ expectations, particularly regarding eligibility criteria (e.g. age, sex frequency), assumptions about ‘risky behaviors,’ and the ‘target’ community. Men preferred peer-to-peer recruitment, noting that most approaches miss key population segments. Findings highlight the need to critically examine the selected ‘target’ community, who sees themselves as participants, and implications for data comprehensiveness and veracity. Study eligibility criteria and recruitment approaches are methodological issues that shape knowledge production and the policies and programs deployed into communities. These findings can inform how future research studies frame recruitment and eligibility in order to better meet the needs of participants and ensure future research engagement.

The Mediating Role of Coping Style: Associations Between Intimate Partner Violence and Suicide Risks Among Chinese Wives of Men Who Have Sex With Men

Wu, W., Zhang, Y., Goldsamt, L., Yan, F., Wang, H., & Li, X. (2021). Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(11), NP6304-NP6322. 10.1177/0886260518814264
The wives of men who have sex with men, known as “Tongqi” in China, have increasingly attracted public attention due to their potential risks of suicide and sexually transmitted infections and HIV. However, few studies have explored the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and suicide risk or the mediating effect of coping style on these associations among Tongqi in China. To describe these relationships, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China from February 2016 to February 2017. A questionnaire, which consisted of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, and reports of suicide attempts, was completed by 178 Chinese Tongqi. Bootstrap tests were performed to determine the mediating role of coping styles on the association between IPV and suicide risks. The median IPV score was 14 (range: 0-50), with the domain of negotiation ranking highest. The average coping style score was.37±.73; 61.2% of Tongqi have had suicidal ideation, and 11.8% had attempted suicide. IPV was significantly correlated with suicidal ideation (rs =.19, p <.01) and suicide attempts (rs =.29, p <.001). Participants with a negative coping style had higher suicidal ideation (rs = –.39, p <.01) and suicide attempts (rs = –.22, p <.01). Coping style had a full mediating effect on the association between IPV and suicidal ideation and a partial mediating effect on suicide attempts. Chinese Tongqi experienced high level of IPV and suicide risks. IPV contributed to the suicide risks of Chinese Tongqi, but these associations were mediated by coping style. Therefore, interventions to improve mental health and prevent suicide risks of Chinese Tongqi should focus on helping them develop a positive coping style to achieve the goal of Healthy China in 2030.

“We are in this together:” dyadic-level influence and decision-making among HIV serodiscordant couples in Tanzania receiving access to PrEP

Fonner, V. A., Ntogwisangu, J., Hamidu, I., Joseph, J., Fields, J., Evans, E., Kilewo, J., Bailey, C., Goldsamt, L., Fisher, C. B., O’Reilly, K. R., Ruta, T., Mbwambo, J., & Sweat, M. D. (2021). BMC Public Health, 21(1). 10.1186/s12889-021-10707-x
Background: A substantial number of new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur within stable couples. Biomedical prevention (pre-exposure prophylaxis, PrEP) and treatment (antiretroviral therapy, ART) can provide benefits to sexual partners and can be used to prevent infection within HIV serodiscordant couples. However, research is typically focused on individuals, not dyads, even when the intervention may directly or indirectly impact sexual partners. Gaps remain in understanding best practices for recruitment, informed consent, and intervention implementation in studies involving HIV prevention and treatment among heterosexual serodiscordant couples. This qualitative study was undertaken to understand and describe decision-making and dyadic-level influence among members of serodiscordant couples regarding (1) participation in a dyadic-based research study involving HIV self-testing and access to PrEP, and (2) utilization of PrEP and ART. Methods: This qualitative study was nested within an observational cohort study assessing the acceptability of home-based couples’ HIV self-testing and uptake of dyadic care for serodiscordant couples involving facilitated referral for HIV-positive partners and access to PrEP for HIV-negative partners. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted among a subset of study participants (n = 22) as well as individuals involved in serodiscordant relationships who chose not to participate (n = 9). Interviews focused on couples’ decision-making regarding study participation and dyadic-level influence on medication use. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and translated from Kiswahili into English. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Three major themes were identified: (1) HIV as “two people’s secret” and the elevated role of partner support in serodiscordant relationships; (2) the intersectional role of HIV-status and gender on decision-making; (3) the relational benefits of PrEP, including psychosocial benefits for the couple that extend beyond prevention. Conclusions: The study found that couples made joint decisions regarding study participation and uptake of HIV-related medication. Relational autonomy and dyadic-level influence should be considered within research and programs involving HIV serodiscordant couples.

Early Career Nurse Reports of Work-Related Substance Use

Stimpfel, A. W., Liang, E., & Goldsamt, L. A. (2020). Journal of Nursing Regulation, 11(1), 29-35. 10.1016/S2155-8256(20)30058-2
Introduction: Substance use disorder (SUD) is a public health crisis in the United States that occurs across many population segments, including nurses. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the culture of substance use among nurses in their first 5 years of practice. Methods: Qualitative descriptive design using virtual focus groups in an online platform was used. Data were collected from February to March 2019 with a total of 23 participants. An open-ended focus group guide was used based on the Work, Stress, and Health Model. Results: Three major themes were identified: “See No Evil, Speak No Evil, Hear No Evil”; “It's Somewhere Out There”; and “Caffeine is King and Alcohol is Queen.” Participants reported high caffeine use and moderate alcohol use to cope with shift work and work stress. There was general acceptance of marijuana use in states that legalized it. Participants were reluctance to fully describe illicit substance use on a personal or unit-level basis; however, substance use was identified as a profession-wide problem for nurses. Conclusions: The early career nurses enrolled in this study reported that they relied on caffeine, alcohol, and other substances before, during, and after their workday. These types of substances are readily reported and deemed acceptable by their peers. New nurses could benefit from coping strategies that do not include substance use to manage work stress and professional challenges, such as shift work.

Global estimate of the prevalence of post-Traumatic stress disorder among adults living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-Analysis

Tang, C., Goldsamt, L., Meng, J., Xiao, X., Zhang, L., Williams, A. B., & Wang, H. (2020). BMJ Open, 10(4). 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032435
Objectives Although people living with HIV (PLWH) have been disproportionately affected by post-Traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the global prevalence of PTSD among PLWH is unknown. This study aimed to systematically review the prevalence of PTSD among PLWH worldwide and explore variation in prevalence across sociodemographic and methodological factors. Design A meta-Analysis using a random-effects model was conducted to pool the prevalence estimated from individual studies, and subgroup analyses were used to analyse heterogeneities. Setting, participants and measures Observational studies providing PTSD prevalence data in an adult HIV population were searched from January 2000 to November 2019. Measurements were not restricted, although the definition of PTSD had to align with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or the International Classification of Diseases diagnostic criteria. Results A total of 38 articles were included among 2406 records identified initially. The estimated global prevalence of PTSD in PLWH was 28% (95% CI 24% to 33%). Significant heterogeneity was detected in the proportion of PLWH who reported PTSD across studies, which was partially explained by geographic area, population group, measurement and sampling method (p<0.05). Conclusion PTSD among PLWH is common worldwide. This review highlights that PTSD should be routinely screened for and that more effective prevention strategies and treatment packages targeting PTSD are needed in PLWH.

Impact of providing free HIV self-testing kits on frequency of testing among men who have sex with men and their sexual partners in china: A randomized controlled trial

Zhang, C., Koniak-Griffin, D., Qian, H. Z., Goldsamt, L. A., Wang, H., Brecht, M. L., & Li, X. (2020). PLoS Medicine, 17(10). 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003365
Background The HIV epidemic is rapidly growing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, yet HIV testing remains suboptimal. We aimed to determine the impact of HIV self-testing (HIVST) interventions on frequency of HIV testing among Chinese MSM and their sexual partners. Methods and findings This randomized controlled trial was conducted in 4 cities in Hunan Province, China. Sexually active and HIV-negative MSM were recruited from communities and randomly assigned (1:1) to intervention or control arms. Participants in the control arm had access to site-based HIV testing (SBHT); those in the intervention arm were provided with 2 free finger-prick-based HIVST kits at enrollment and could receive 2 to 4 kits delivered through express mail every 3 months for 1 year in addition to SBHT. They were encouraged to distribute HIVST kits to their sexual partners. The primary outcome was the number of HIV tests taken by MSM participants, and the secondary outcome was the number of HIV tests taken by their sexual partners during 12 months of followup. The effect size for the primary and secondary outcomes was evaluated as the standardized mean difference (SMD) in testing frequency between intervention and control arms. Between April 14, 2018, and June 30, 2018, 230 MSM were recruited. Mean age was 29 years; 77% attended college; 75% were single. The analysis population who completed at least one follow-up questionnaire included 110 (93%, 110/118) in the intervention and 106 (95%, 106/112) in the control arm. The average frequency of HIV tests per participant in the intervention arm (3.75) was higher than that in the control arm (1.80; SMD 1.26; 95% CI 0.97–1.55; P < 0.001). This difference was mainly due to the difference in HIVST between the 2 arms (intervention 2.18 versus control 0.41; SMD 1.30; 95% CI 1.01–1.59; P < 0.001), whereas the average frequency of SBHT was comparable (1.57 versus 1.40, SMD 0.14; 95% CI -0.13 to 0.40; P = 0.519). The average frequency of HIV tests among sexual partners of each participant was higher in intervention than control arm (2.65 versus 1.31; SMD 0.64; 95% CI 0.36–0.92; P < 0.001), and this difference was also due to the difference in HIVST between the 2 arms (intervention 1.41 versus control 0.36; SMD 0.75; 95% CI 0.47–1.04; P < 0.001) but not SBHT (1.24 versus 0.96; SMD 0.23; 95% CI -0.05 to 0.50; P = 0.055). Zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses showed that the likelihood of taking HIV testing among intervention participants were 2.1 times greater than that of control participants (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 2.10; 95% CI 1.75–2.53, P < 0.001), and their sexual partners were 1.55 times more likely to take HIV tests in the intervention arm compared with the control arm (1.55, 1.23–1.95, P < 0.001). During the study period, 3 participants in the intervention arm and none in the control arm tested HIV positive, and 8 sexual partners of intervention arm participants also tested positive. No other adverse events were reported. Limitations in this study included the data on number of SBHT were solely based on self-report by the participants, but self-reported number of HIVST in the intervention arm was validated; the number of partner HIV testing was indirectly reported by participants because of difficulties in accessing each of their partners. Conclusions In this study, we found that providing free HIVST kits significantly increased testing frequency among Chinese MSM and effectively enlarged HIV testing coverage by enhancing partner HIV testing through distribution of kits within their sexual networks.

Interrelationships Between Intimate Partner Violence, Coping Style, Depression, and Quality of Life Among the Regular Female Sexual Partners of Men Who Have Sex With Men

Yan, F., Tang, S., Goldsamt, L., Wang, H., Chen, J., & Li, X. (2020). Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 10.1177/0886260520917519
The regular female sexual partners of men who have sex with men (MSM), namely, “Tongqi” in China, increasingly attract attention in the field of public health due to their high levels of depression and intimate partner violence (IPV), and their potential risk of HIV infection. Few studies have explored the relationships among IPV, coping style, depression, and quality of life (QOL) in this population. To examine these relationships, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China from February 2016 to March 2017. A questionnaire, including the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale, was completed by a total of 194 Chinese Tongqi. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the relationships among IPV, coping style, depression, and QOL. IPV (β = −0.12, p =.002), depression (β = −0.79, p <.001), and active coping style directly (β = 0.17, p <.001) affected the QOL of this group of women; IPV also indirectly affected QOL through the mediating effect of passive coping style and depression, and the positive coping style indirectly affected QOL through the mediating effect of depression. The proposed model showed good fit of indices, χ2/d = 43.72/34 = 1.286 < 3, p =.123, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.038. Chinese Tongqi experienced high levels of IPV, which led to a poor QOL, partially through the mediating role of passive coping strategy and depression. Future studies or interventions should emphasize the IPV experienced by Chinese Tongqi and provide psychological support so as to improve the overall well-being of this vulnerable female population.

Potential HIV transmission risk among spouses: Marriage intention and expected extramarital male-to-male sex among single men who have sex with men in Hunan, China

Wu, W., Yan, X., Zhang, X., Goldsamt, L., Chi, Y., Huang, D., & Li, X. (2020). Sexually Transmitted Infections, 96(2), 151-156. 10.1136/sextrans-2018-053906
Objective The HIV epidemic in China is shifting from the high-risk groups of men who have sex with men (MSM), injection drug users and sex workers to the general population, and sexual contact among spouses is assumed to be one route of transmission. Our objective was to determine the intention to marry and the expected extramarital male-to-male sex among single Chinese MSM, in order to estimate the potential HIV transmission risk among MSM living with HIV and their female spouses. Methods We conducted a web-based, cross-sectional survey between May 2016 and May 2017. A questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, HIV-related and homosexuality-related stigma, marriage intention, and expected extramarital sexual behaviours was completed by 556 single MSM in Hunan, China. Descriptive statistics, χ 2 test, two-sample t-test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Currently 48.9% of the participants intended to marry a woman in their lifetime, and 91% of them reported that they would continue to have sex with men after getting married. Those who were living with parents (OR=2.26), self-identified as bisexual (OR=2.57), had at least one heterosexual partner in the previous 6 months (OR=0.33) and perceived a higher level of self-homosexual stigma (OR=1.78) had greater intention to marry a woman. Conclusion Nearly half of Chinese MSM intend to marry women, which has significantly dropped from the estimated percentage more than 10 years ago for Chinese MSM. However, the expectation of extramarital homosexual behaviours was common in these men. Sexual and gender minority stresses especially from family members, homosexual identity assertiveness and related stigma were the main factors for marriage intention, which should be addressed in future studies and practices.