Lloyd A Goldsamt


Lloyd A Goldsamt headshot

Lloyd A Goldsamt

Senior Research Scientist

1 212 998 5315

433 First Avenue
Room 739
New York, NY 10010
United States

Lloyd A Goldsamt's additional information

Lloyd A. Goldsamt, PhD, is a senior research scientist at NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing and a licensed clinical psychologist in New York State. He has conducted NIH-funded research and community-based evaluations for more than 25 years. His primary research area is HIV and STI prevention among high-risk youth populations, including men who have sex with men, male sex workers, and injection drug users. Dr. Goldsamt is also on the faculty of the Fordham University HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute and the Associate Director of the Dissemination Core at the Center for Drug Use and HIV/HCV Research in the NYU School of Global Public Health.

Dr. Goldsamt has conducted training and program evaluations locally and nationally, focusing on drug courts and community-based organizations working to prevent HIV and drug abuse. He is currently the Evaluator for the Brooklyn Treatment Court, an Evaluator on an Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) project developing nationwide Juvenile Drug Court Learning Collaboratives, and an Evaluation Consultant for the OJJDP Opioid Affected Youth Initiative.

Dr. Goldsamt holds a PhD and MA in clinical psychology from the State University of New York at Stony Brook and a BA from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

PhD, Clinical Psychology - State University of New York at Stony Brook
MA - State University of New York at Stony Brook
BA - University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Substance use

Faculty Honors Awards

Phi Beta Kappa


Early Career Nurse Reports of Work-Related Substance Use

Stimpfel, A. W., Liang, E., & Goldsamt, L. A. (2020). Journal of Nursing Regulation, 11(1), 29-35. 10.1016/S2155-8256(20)30058-2
Introduction: Substance use disorder (SUD) is a public health crisis in the United States that occurs across many population segments, including nurses. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the culture of substance use among nurses in their first 5 years of practice. Methods: Qualitative descriptive design using virtual focus groups in an online platform was used. Data were collected from February to March 2019 with a total of 23 participants. An open-ended focus group guide was used based on the Work, Stress, and Health Model. Results: Three major themes were identified: “See No Evil, Speak No Evil, Hear No Evil”; “It's Somewhere Out There”; and “Caffeine is King and Alcohol is Queen.” Participants reported high caffeine use and moderate alcohol use to cope with shift work and work stress. There was general acceptance of marijuana use in states that legalized it. Participants were reluctance to fully describe illicit substance use on a personal or unit-level basis; however, substance use was identified as a profession-wide problem for nurses. Conclusions: The early career nurses enrolled in this study reported that they relied on caffeine, alcohol, and other substances before, during, and after their workday. These types of substances are readily reported and deemed acceptable by their peers. New nurses could benefit from coping strategies that do not include substance use to manage work stress and professional challenges, such as shift work.

Global estimate of the prevalence of post-Traumatic stress disorder among adults living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-Analysis

Tang, C., Goldsamt, L., Meng, J., Xiao, X., Zhang, L., Williams, A. B., & Wang, H. (2020). BMJ Open, 10(4). 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032435
Objectives Although people living with HIV (PLWH) have been disproportionately affected by post-Traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the global prevalence of PTSD among PLWH is unknown. This study aimed to systematically review the prevalence of PTSD among PLWH worldwide and explore variation in prevalence across sociodemographic and methodological factors. Design A meta-Analysis using a random-effects model was conducted to pool the prevalence estimated from individual studies, and subgroup analyses were used to analyse heterogeneities. Setting, participants and measures Observational studies providing PTSD prevalence data in an adult HIV population were searched from January 2000 to November 2019. Measurements were not restricted, although the definition of PTSD had to align with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or the International Classification of Diseases diagnostic criteria. Results A total of 38 articles were included among 2406 records identified initially. The estimated global prevalence of PTSD in PLWH was 28% (95% CI 24% to 33%). Significant heterogeneity was detected in the proportion of PLWH who reported PTSD across studies, which was partially explained by geographic area, population group, measurement and sampling method (p<0.05). Conclusion PTSD among PLWH is common worldwide. This review highlights that PTSD should be routinely screened for and that more effective prevention strategies and treatment packages targeting PTSD are needed in PLWH.

Impact of providing free HIV self-testing kits on frequency of testing among men who have sex with men and their sexual partners in china: A randomized controlled trial

Zhang, C., Koniak-Griffin, D., Qian, H. Z., Goldsamt, L. A., Wang, H., Brecht, M. L., & Li, X. (2020). PLoS Medicine, 17(10). 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003365
Background The HIV epidemic is rapidly growing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, yet HIV testing remains suboptimal. We aimed to determine the impact of HIV self-testing (HIVST) interventions on frequency of HIV testing among Chinese MSM and their sexual partners. Methods and findings This randomized controlled trial was conducted in 4 cities in Hunan Province, China. Sexually active and HIV-negative MSM were recruited from communities and randomly assigned (1:1) to intervention or control arms. Participants in the control arm had access to site-based HIV testing (SBHT); those in the intervention arm were provided with 2 free finger-prick-based HIVST kits at enrollment and could receive 2 to 4 kits delivered through express mail every 3 months for 1 year in addition to SBHT. They were encouraged to distribute HIVST kits to their sexual partners. The primary outcome was the number of HIV tests taken by MSM participants, and the secondary outcome was the number of HIV tests taken by their sexual partners during 12 months of followup. The effect size for the primary and secondary outcomes was evaluated as the standardized mean difference (SMD) in testing frequency between intervention and control arms. Between April 14, 2018, and June 30, 2018, 230 MSM were recruited. Mean age was 29 years; 77% attended college; 75% were single. The analysis population who completed at least one follow-up questionnaire included 110 (93%, 110/118) in the intervention and 106 (95%, 106/112) in the control arm. The average frequency of HIV tests per participant in the intervention arm (3.75) was higher than that in the control arm (1.80; SMD 1.26; 95% CI 0.97–1.55; P < 0.001). This difference was mainly due to the difference in HIVST between the 2 arms (intervention 2.18 versus control 0.41; SMD 1.30; 95% CI 1.01–1.59; P < 0.001), whereas the average frequency of SBHT was comparable (1.57 versus 1.40, SMD 0.14; 95% CI -0.13 to 0.40; P = 0.519). The average frequency of HIV tests among sexual partners of each participant was higher in intervention than control arm (2.65 versus 1.31; SMD 0.64; 95% CI 0.36–0.92; P < 0.001), and this difference was also due to the difference in HIVST between the 2 arms (intervention 1.41 versus control 0.36; SMD 0.75; 95% CI 0.47–1.04; P < 0.001) but not SBHT (1.24 versus 0.96; SMD 0.23; 95% CI -0.05 to 0.50; P = 0.055). Zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses showed that the likelihood of taking HIV testing among intervention participants were 2.1 times greater than that of control participants (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 2.10; 95% CI 1.75–2.53, P < 0.001), and their sexual partners were 1.55 times more likely to take HIV tests in the intervention arm compared with the control arm (1.55, 1.23–1.95, P < 0.001). During the study period, 3 participants in the intervention arm and none in the control arm tested HIV positive, and 8 sexual partners of intervention arm participants also tested positive. No other adverse events were reported. Limitations in this study included the data on number of SBHT were solely based on self-report by the participants, but self-reported number of HIVST in the intervention arm was validated; the number of partner HIV testing was indirectly reported by participants because of difficulties in accessing each of their partners. Conclusions In this study, we found that providing free HIVST kits significantly increased testing frequency among Chinese MSM and effectively enlarged HIV testing coverage by enhancing partner HIV testing through distribution of kits within their sexual networks.

Interrelationships Between Intimate Partner Violence, Coping Style, Depression, and Quality of Life Among the Regular Female Sexual Partners of Men Who Have Sex With Men

Yan, F., Tang, S., Goldsamt, L., Wang, H., Chen, J., & Li, X. (2020). Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 10.1177/0886260520917519
The regular female sexual partners of men who have sex with men (MSM), namely, “Tongqi” in China, increasingly attract attention in the field of public health due to their high levels of depression and intimate partner violence (IPV), and their potential risk of HIV infection. Few studies have explored the relationships among IPV, coping style, depression, and quality of life (QOL) in this population. To examine these relationships, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China from February 2016 to March 2017. A questionnaire, including the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale, was completed by a total of 194 Chinese Tongqi. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the relationships among IPV, coping style, depression, and QOL. IPV (β = −0.12, p =.002), depression (β = −0.79, p <.001), and active coping style directly (β = 0.17, p <.001) affected the QOL of this group of women; IPV also indirectly affected QOL through the mediating effect of passive coping style and depression, and the positive coping style indirectly affected QOL through the mediating effect of depression. The proposed model showed good fit of indices, χ2/d = 43.72/34 = 1.286 < 3, p =.123, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.038. Chinese Tongqi experienced high levels of IPV, which led to a poor QOL, partially through the mediating role of passive coping strategy and depression. Future studies or interventions should emphasize the IPV experienced by Chinese Tongqi and provide psychological support so as to improve the overall well-being of this vulnerable female population.

Potential HIV transmission risk among spouses: Marriage intention and expected extramarital male-to-male sex among single men who have sex with men in Hunan, China

Wu, W., Yan, X., Zhang, X., Goldsamt, L., Chi, Y., Huang, D., & Li, X. (2020). Sexually Transmitted Infections, 96(2), 151-156. 10.1136/sextrans-2018-053906
Objective The HIV epidemic in China is shifting from the high-risk groups of men who have sex with men (MSM), injection drug users and sex workers to the general population, and sexual contact among spouses is assumed to be one route of transmission. Our objective was to determine the intention to marry and the expected extramarital male-to-male sex among single Chinese MSM, in order to estimate the potential HIV transmission risk among MSM living with HIV and their female spouses. Methods We conducted a web-based, cross-sectional survey between May 2016 and May 2017. A questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, HIV-related and homosexuality-related stigma, marriage intention, and expected extramarital sexual behaviours was completed by 556 single MSM in Hunan, China. Descriptive statistics, χ 2 test, two-sample t-test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Currently 48.9% of the participants intended to marry a woman in their lifetime, and 91% of them reported that they would continue to have sex with men after getting married. Those who were living with parents (OR=2.26), self-identified as bisexual (OR=2.57), had at least one heterosexual partner in the previous 6 months (OR=0.33) and perceived a higher level of self-homosexual stigma (OR=1.78) had greater intention to marry a woman. Conclusion Nearly half of Chinese MSM intend to marry women, which has significantly dropped from the estimated percentage more than 10 years ago for Chinese MSM. However, the expectation of extramarital homosexual behaviours was common in these men. Sexual and gender minority stresses especially from family members, homosexual identity assertiveness and related stigma were the main factors for marriage intention, which should be addressed in future studies and practices.

Recruitment of US Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) into Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)–Related Behavioral Research Studies: A Scoping Review

Navarra, A. M. D., Handschuh, C., Hroncich, T., Jacobs, S. K., & Goldsamt, L. (2020). Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 17(6), 615-631. 10.1007/s11904-020-00530-1
Purpose of Review: The objective of this scoping review was to examine the range of published evidence on recruitment approaches and outcomes of US adolescents and young adults (AYA) ages (18–29 years) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–related behavioral research studies during the past 10 years. Recent Findings: Implementation of effective behavioral research strategies among HIV at-risk and infected AYA is key to ending the HIV epidemic and necessitates successful recruitment strategies. Summary: A comprehensive search was executed across four electronic databases. Of the 1697 identified studies, seven met inclusion criteria with six of these seven directed to HIV prevention. Most studies used online recruitment as part of a hybrid strategy, and combined field-based/in-person and online methods. Recruitment strategies and outcomes, resources and compensation, procedures for consent, and timelines varied among all seven studies. Our results highlight the need for development of recruitment models in alignment with behavioral strategies aimed to treat and prevent HIV among US AYA.

Sexual attitudes, sexual behaviors, and use of HIV prevention services among male undergraduate students in Hunan, China: A cross-sectional survey

Xu, H., Xie, J., Xiao, Z., Xiao, H., Li, X., Goldsamt, L., Williams, A. B., & Wang, H. (2019). BMC Public Health, 19(1). 10.1186/s12889-019-6570-2
Background: The dramatic increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among undergraduate students in China, especially among the male students, is alarming. This study aimed to describe sexual attitudes and behaviours and to examine the use of HIV prevention services and related factors among male undergraduate students in Hunan, China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from November 2017 to January 2018 among male students from three universities in Hunan, China. Self-administered questionnaires were uploaded online to collect data anonymously. HIV-related knowledge and sexual attitudes were assessed with the unified National AIDS Sentinel Surveillance Questionnaire and Sexual Attitude Scale, whereas sexual behaviours and use of HIV prevention services were examined with researcher-created questionnaires. HIV-related knowledge, sexual attitudes and behaviours, and use of HIV prevention services were described. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to analyse the factors associated with the use of HIV prevention education services. P values ≤0.05 were considered significant. Results: Of the 1431 respondents, 1068 (74.6%; 95% CI: 72.4-76.0%) used HIV prevention education services and 105 (7.3%) took HIV testing. The openness of sexual attitudes was moderate overall. About 299 (20.9%) of this sample had active sex partners, and 49 (16.4%) of them had sex with males. The consistent use of condoms was unsatisfactory among the sexually active students, especially among those with homosexual behaviours. Participants who were older in age (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.70-0.86), who were university seniors (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.70-0.91), who drank alcohol (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.93), and who had open attitude towards paid sex (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54-0.95), were less likely to use HIV prevention education services. Conclusions: Although male undergraduate students show open attitude to premarital sex and engage in risky sexual behaviours, their use of HIV prevention education services is unsatisfactory, particularly in terms of HIV testing. More comprehensive and specific education on HIV prevention and testing services should be designed and offered on campus.

Effectiveness of self-testing kits availability on improving HIV testing frequency for Chinese men who have sex with men and their sexual partners: A protocol for a multicenter randomised controlled trial

Zhang, C., Li, X., Koniak-Griffin, D., Goldsamt, L. A., & Zhou, J. (2018). BMJ Open, 8(12). 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024423
Introduction: HIV epidemic is increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, yet HIV testing uptake remains low. As an emerging approach, HIV self-testing (HIVST) has the potential to promote HIV testing coverage and frequency in this population. However, evidence of the effectiveness on implementation of HIVST among Chinese MSM and their sexual partners is scarce. Methods and analysis: The randomised controlled trial will be performed in Changsha, Changde, Shaoyang and Yiyang, Hunan province, China, recruiting 184 recent testers (men who had at least one HIV test within the past 2 years) and 26 non-recent testers (men who did not have HIV tests within 2 years or never had an HIV test). Eligible men will be randomly divided 1:1 into two groups: intervention (with free HIVST kits plus site-based HIV testing services) and control (site-based HIV testing services only). Participants: in the intervention group will be provided with two free finger-prick-based HIVST kits, and can apply for two to four kits every 3 months for 1 year. Participants in both groups will complete questionnaires via WeChat at five separate times: baseline, third, sixth, ninth and twelfth month. The primary outcome is the mean number of HIV tests for MSM over the 12-month study period. The secondary outcome is the mean number of HIV tests for sexual partners of MSM over the 12-month study period. The tertiary outcomes are the self-reported proportion of consistent condom usage for anal sex, and the numbers of sexual partners during the 12-month study period. Ethics and dissemination: The study has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of Behavioural and Nursing Research in Xiangya School of Nursing of Central South University, China (2018002). Study results will be disseminated through conferences and academic journals.

Heavy Alcohol Use Among Migrant and Non-Migrant Male Sex Workers in Thailand: A Neglected HIV/STI Vulnerability

Guadamuz, T. E., Clatts, M. C., & Goldsamt, L. A. (2018). Substance Use and Misuse, 53(11), 1907-1914. 10.1080/10826084.2018.1436564
Background: There is scarce research on male sex workers in the context of alcohol use. While heavy alcohol use has been established as a risk factor for HIV and STI infections among men who have sex with men (MSM), men who engage in sex work with other men, particularly from the Global South, have not been included in these studies. Moreover, studies among male sex workers in Asia often do not explore migration contexts of these men. Objectives: The objective of this exploratory study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of heavy alcohol use among migrant and non-migrant male sex workers in Bangkok and Pattaya, Central Thailand. Methods: Between August and October 2015, 18–24 year-old migrant and non-migrant male sex workers (n = 212) were recruited from various male sex work-identified venues (bars, clubs, massage parlors, and go-go bars) to take an interviewer-administered cross-sectional survey in Bangkok and Pattaya, Thailand. Measures were adapted from previous studies in similar populations and included structured questions across four domains, including demographic characteristics, alcohol use, stimulant use, and sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the independent associations between heavy alcohol use (heavy versus not heavy) and demographic characteristics, stimulant use and sexual behavior. Results: Heavy alcohol use was prevalent among one-third of participants. Heavy alcohol use was positively associated with male sex workers who were non-migrant and Thai, currently using stimulants, having 15 or more male clients in the past month and having first consumed alcohol at age 15 years or younger. Conclusions: Current HIV prevention efforts should consider subpopulations of MSM, including male sex workers and migrants, as well as other risk behaviors like alcohol, as important contexts for HIV and STI risks.

HIV and other STIs in male sex workers: Findings from a sexual health promotion intervention in Vietnam

Goldsamt, L. A., Clatts, M. C., Giang, L. M., Le, B. Q., Colby, D. J., & Yu, G. (2018). International Journal of STD and AIDS, 29(6), 540-546. 10.1177/0956462417740291
Male sex workers (MSWs) in Vietnam are at high risk for acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), yet are extremely disengaged from the healthcare system. This contributes to large numbers of untreated or late-treated infections and increased secondary transmission. We enrolled 995 MSWs in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in a Sexual Health Promotion intervention that included face-to-face delivery of seven content modules, a clinical examination and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Onsite treatment was provided for STIs, and those who tested positive for HIV were referred to local treatment centers. While 64.6% of participants had never been to a health service and fewer than half (41.2%) had ever been tested for HIV, 67.1% returned for test results. This testing identified 109 (11.0%) participants who were HIV-positive and 312 (31.4%) who tested positive for at least one other STI. Substantive differences were seen in MSWs from different cities, with those from Hanoi more likely to have ever visited a health service (57.8% vs. 24.9%) and to have taken a prior HIV test (54.1% vs. 37.9%) than those in HCMC. Sexual health promotion is a promising approach to engaging MSWs in health services.