Audrey Lyndon


Audrey Lyndon Headshot

Audrey Lyndon


Vernice D. Ferguson Professor in Health Equity
Assistant Dean for Clinical Research

1 212 922 5940

433 First Ave
Room 606
New York, NY 10010
United States

Accepting PhD students

Audrey Lyndon's additional information

Audrey Lyndon, PhD, FAAN, RNC, is the assistant dean for clinical research and a professor at NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing. Her research focuses on safety, communication, and teamwork in maternity and neonatal settings, using the qualitative methods of grounded theory and thematic analysis to examine the perspectives of clinicians and parents on maintaining safety in the perinatal environment. Her team has conducted ground-breaking research developing an understanding of how women and parents conceptualize safety during childbirth and neonatal intensive care. She has also conducted population-based studies of maternal morbidity and has experience with mixed methods approaches. Lyndon is a national leader in perinatal patient safety. She serves as a member of the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses Staffing Task Force, and as a liaison member of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Patient Safety and Quality Improvement, and. Her clinical experience includes the implementation of quality improvement practices and evidence-based guideline development. The Obstetric Hemorrhage Toolkit, produced by a task force that she co-chaired for the California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative, has been taken up nationally and internationally as a model for collaborative quality improvement. Lyndon is currently a principal investigator for a study investigating relationships between obstetric nursing practice and patient outcomes funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Prior to joining the faculty at NYU, Lyndon was chair of the Department of Family Health Care Nursing at the University of California, San Francisco, and held the James P. and Marjorie A. Livingston Chair in Nursing Excellence.

Lyndon received a PhD in Nursing Science from the University of California, San Francisco, MS in Nursing with perinatal clinical nurse specialist emphasis from University of California, San Francisco, and a BA in biology and women’s studies from the University of California, Santa Cruz.

PhD - University of California, San Francisco
MS - University of California, San Francisco
BA - University of California, Santa Cruz

Women's health
Health Services Research

American Academy of Nursing
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), Educational Affiliate
American Nurses Association
Association of Women’s Health Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses
International Family Nursing Association

Faculty Honors Awards

Reviewer of the Year, Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing (2017)
Irving Harris Visiting Professor, University of Illinois, Chicago College of Nursing (2015)
Distinguished Professional Service Award, Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (2013)
Fellow, American Academy of Nursing (2012)
Award of Excellence in Research, Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (2011)


Antidepressant use During Pregnancy: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Decision-Making of Patients and Providers

Eakley, R., & Lyndon, A. (2022). Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 67(3), 332-353. 10.1111/jmwh.13366
Introduction: Despite the risks associated with untreated perinatal depression and anxiety, both patients and clinicians are less likely to follow evidence-based guidelines including the use of antidepressants during pregnancy. The aim of this integrative review was to describe the perspectives of both patients and prescribing health care providers regarding the use of antidepressants during pregnancy. Methods: We performed a literature search in PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest Central, and PsychINFO. Inclusion criteria were English language, original peer-reviewed research published within the previous 10 years that described perspectives regarding the use of antidepressants of pregnant patients or prescribing providers during pregnancy. Studies were excluded if their focus was on screening practices, treatment guidelines, or evaluation of decision support tool; medication or treatment broadly; bipolar disorder or serious mental illness; or they did not provide patient or provider perspective. This review was limited to professionals with scopes of practice that include prescriptive authority (eg, physicians, advanced practices nurses, midwives). Included articles were critically appraised and read in an iterative process to extract methodological details and synthesize findings. Results: Nineteen studies met criteria for inclusion and varied by design, sample, and quality. Together, the reviewed articles suggest that patients and prescribing providers hold a range of beliefs regarding the safety of antidepressant during pregnancy. Patients and providers appear to value different sources of information and varied in awareness of the negative impacts of untreated depression and anxiety during pregnancy. Many patients report dissatisfaction with available information and distress throughout the decision-making experience. Notably, patients and providers had incongruent perceptions of the others’ experience. Discussion: Inconsistencies between knowledge, attitudes, and decision-making highlight the need for improved dissemination of evidence-based treatments and support increased training for psychopharmacology during pregnancy. Efforts to reduce patient distress regarding their decisions, such as adequate time and information, are indicated.

Psychometric properties of the perinatal missed care survey and missed care during labor and birth

Lyndon, A., Simpson, K. R., Spetz, J., Fletcher, J., Gay, C. L., & Landstrom, G. L. (2022). Applied Nursing Research, 63. 10.1016/j.apnr.2021.151516

Risk Factors for Dual Burden of Severe Maternal Morbidity and Preterm Birth by Insurance Type in California

El Ayadi, A. M., Baer, R. J., Gay, C., Lee, H. C., Obedin-Maliver, J., Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L., & Lyndon, A. (2022). Maternal and Child Health Journal, 26(3), 601-613. 10.1007/s10995-021-03313-1
Objectives: Among childbearing women, insurance coverage determines degree of access to preventive and emergency care for maternal and infant health. Maternal-infant dyads with dual burden of severe maternal morbidity and preterm birth experience high physical and psychological morbidity, and the risk of dual burden varies by insurance type. We examined whether sociodemographic and perinatal risk factors of dual burden differed by insurance type. Methods: We estimated relative risks of dual burden by maternal sociodemographic and perinatal characteristics in the 2007–2012 California birth cohort dataset stratified by insurance type and compared effects across insurance types using Wald Z-statistics. Results: Dual burden ranged from 0.36% of privately insured births to 0.41% of uninsured births. Obstetric comorbidities, multiple gestation, parity, and birth mode conferred the largest risks across all insurance types, but effect magnitude differed. The adjusted relative risk of dual burden associated with preeclampsia superimposed on preexisting hypertension ranged from 9.1 (95% CI 7.6–10.9) for privately insured to 15.9 (95% CI 9.1–27.6) among uninsured. The adjusted relative risk of dual burden associated with cesarean birth ranged from 3.1 (95% CI 2.7–3.5) for women with Medi-Cal to 5.4 (95% CI 3.5–8.2) for women with other insurance among primiparas, and 7.0 (95% CI 6.0–8.3) to 19.4 (95% CI 10.3–36.3), respectively, among multiparas. Conclusions: Risk factors of dual burden differed by insurance type across sociodemographic and perinatal factors, suggesting that care quality may differ by insurance type. Attention to peripartum care access and care quality provided by insurance type is needed to improve maternal and neonatal health.

Social Construction of Target Populations: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Policy Approaches to Perinatal Illicit Substance Screening

Cooper, N. M., Lyndon, A., McLemore, M. R., & Asiodu, I. V. (2022). Policy, Politics, and Nursing Practice, 23(1), 56-66. 10.1177/15271544211067781
Perinatal illicit substance use is a nursing and public health issue. Current screening policies have significant consequences for birthing individuals and their families. Racial disparities exist in spite of targeted and universal screening policies and practices. Thus, new theoretical approaches are needed to investigate perinatal illicit substance use screening in hospital settings. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the social construction of target populations theory in the context of perinatal illicit substance use screening. Using the theoretical insights of this theory to interrogate the approaches taken by policy makers to address perinatal illicit substance use and screening provides the contextual framework needed to understand why specific policy tools were selected when designing public policy to address these issues. The analysis and evaluation of this theory was conducted using the theory description and critical reflection model.

AWHONN Members’ Recommendations on What to Include in Updated Standards for Professional Registered Nurse Staffing for Perinatal Units

Simpson, K. R., Roth, C. K., Hering, S. L., Landstrom, G. L., Lyndon, A., Tinsley, J. M., Zimmerman, J., & Hill, C. M. (2021). Nursing for Women’s Health, 25(5), 329-336. 10.1016/j.nwh.2021.08.001
Objective: To solicit advice from members of the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) on what to include in an update of nurse staffing standards. Design: Online, single-question survey with thematic analysis of responses. Setting: Electronic survey link sent via e-mail. Participants: AWHONN members who shared their e-mail with the association and who responded to the survey (n = 1,813). Measures: Participants were asked to answer this single question: “The AWHONN (2010) Guidelines for Professional Registered Nurse Staffing for Perinatal Units are being updated. During their initial development, feedback from nearly 900 AWHONN members was extremely helpful in providing specific details for the nurse staffing guidelines. We'd really like to hear from you again. Please give the writing team your input. What should AWHONN consider when updating the AWHONN nurse staffing guidelines?” Results: The e-mail was successfully delivered to 20,463 members; 8,050 opened the e-mail, and 3,050 opened the link to the survey. There were 1,892 responses. After removing duplicate and blank responses, 1,813 responses were available for analysis. They represented all hospital practice settings for maternity and newborn care and included nurses from small-volume and rural hospitals. Primary concerns of respondents centered on two aspects of patient acuity—the increasing complexity of clinical cases and the need to link nurse staffing standards to patient acuity. Other themes included maintaining current nurse-to-patient ratios, needing help with implementation in the context of economic challenges, and changing wording from “guidelines” to “standards” to promote widespread adoption. Conclusion: In a single-question survey, AWHONN members offered rich, detailed recommendations that were used in the updating of the AWHONN nurse staffing standards.

Barriers and facilitators to interdisciplinary communication during consultations: A qualitative study

Liu, P., Lyndon, A., Holl, J. L., Johnson, J., Bilimoria, K. Y., & Stey, A. M. (2021). BMJ Open, 11(9). 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046111
Objective Communication failures between clinicians lead to poor patient outcomes. Critically injured patients have multiple injured organ systems and require complex multidisciplinary care from a wide range of healthcare professionals and communication failures are abundantly common. This study sought to determine barriers and facilitators to interdisciplinary communication between the consulting trauma, intensive care unit (ICU) team and specialty consultants for critically injured patients at an urban, safety-net, level 1 trauma centre. Design An observational qualitative study of barriers and facilitators to interdisciplinary communication. Setting We conducted observations of daily rounds in two trauma surgical ICUs and recorded the most frequently consulted teams. Participants Key informant interviews after presenting clinical vignettes as discussion prompts were conducted with a broad range of clinicians from the ICUs and physicians and nurse practitioners from the consultant teams who were identified during the observations. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data of these 10 interviews were combined with primary transcript data from prior study (25 interviews) and analysed together because of the same setting with same themes. Independent coding of the transcripts, with iterative reconciliation, was performed by two coders. Outcomes measures Facilitators and barriers of interdisciplinary communication were identified. Results A total of 35 interview transcripts were analysed. Cardiology and interventional radiology were the most frequently consulted teams. Consulting and consultant clinicians reported that perceived accessibility from the team seeking a consultation and the consultant team impacted interdisciplinary communication. Accessibility had a physical dimension as well as a psychological dimension. Accessibility was demonstrated by responsiveness between clinicians of different disciplines and in turn facilitated interdisciplinary communication. Social norms, cognitive biases, hierarchy and relationships were reported as both facilitators and barriers to accessibility, and therefore, interdisciplinary communication. Conclusion Accessibility impacted interdisciplinary communication between the consulting and the consultant team. Article summary Elucidates barriers and facilitators to interdisciplinary communication between consulting and consultant teams.

Group Prenatal Care and Maternal Outcomes: A Scoping Review

Tucker, C. M., Felder, T. M., Dail, R. B., Lyndon, A., & Allen, K. C. (2021). MCN. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 46(6), 314-322. 10.1097/NMC.0000000000000766
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the current state of literature on group prenatal care and its impact on maternal outcomes and racial disparities in adverse maternal outcomes. DESIGN: We conducted a scoping review of literature published between January 2010 and December 2020 using the PRISMA-ScR reporting checklist. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified using key words and MeSH terms in PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Inclusion criteria were studies that were (a) conducted in the United States; (b) published between January 2010 and December 2020; (c) in English; (d) focused on the primary investigation of group prenatal care and reporting on maternal comorbidity outcomes; and (e) an observational study or clinical trial. RESULTS: Nine studies met inclusion criteria. They reported on outcomes of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, final A1C among patients with gestational diabetes mellitus, and postpartum hemorrhage. None reported on racial disparities for minoritized populations. Among all reported maternal outcomes, results were mixed, providing inconclusive evidence. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Outcomes from group prenatal care focus more on neonatal outcomes than maternal outcomes. More studies are needed with stronger designs. Given pervasive racial disparities in U.S. maternal mortality, future studies should assess how group prenatal care participation may contribute to fewer experiences of racial discrimination and implicit bias for Black women in maternity care.

The impact of Severe Maternal Morbidity on probability of subsequent birth in a population-based study of women in California from 1997-2017

Bane, S., Carmichael, S. L., Snowden, J. M., Liu, C., Lyndon, A., & Wall-Wieler, E. (2021). Annals of Epidemiology, 64, 8-14. 10.1016/j.annepidem.2021.08.017
Importance: Complications during pregnancy and birth can impact whether an individual has more children. Individuals experiencing SMM are at a higher risk of general and reproductive health issues after pregnancy, which could reduce the probability of a subsequent birth. Objective: To examine whether experiencing SMM during an individual's first birth affects their probability of having an additional birth, and whether this effect varies by maternal factors. Methods: This retrospective cohort study US linked vital records and maternal discharges from 1997 to 2017 to identify all California births. The exposure, Severe Maternal Morbidity (SMM) was identified using a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention index. Individuals whose first birth was a singleton live birth were followed until their second birth or December 31, 2017, whichever came first. Hazard ratios for having a subsequent birth were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. This association was assessed overall and stratified by maternal factors of a priori interest: age, race/ethnicity, and payer. Results: Of the 3,916,413 individuals in our study, 51,872 (1.3%) experienced SMM at first birth. Compared to those who do not experience SMM, individuals who had SMM had a lower hazard, or instantaneous rate, of subsequent birth (adjusted HR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.84); this association was observed in all levels of stratification (for example, adjusted HR range for known race/ethnicity: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.80 for non-Hispanic White to 0.90, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.92 for Hispanic) and all indicators of SMM (0.24, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.35 for cardiac arrest/ventricular fibrillation to 0.84, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.87 for eclampsia). Conclusion and Relevance: Our findings suggest that individuals who experience SMM at the time of their first birth are less likely to have a subsequent birth as compared to those who do not experience SMM at the time of their first birth. While the reasons for these findings are unclear, they could inform reproductive life planning discussions for individuals experiencing SMM. Future directions include studies exploring the reasons for not having a subsequent birth.

Interpregnancy Interval and Subsequent Severe Maternal Morbidity: A 16-Year Population-Based Study From California

Liu, C., Snowden, J. M., Lyell, D. J., Wall-Wieler, E., Abrams, B., Kan, P., Stephansson, O., Lyndon, A., & Carmichael, S. L. (2021). American Journal of Epidemiology, 190(6), 1034-1046. 10.1093/aje/kwab020
Interpregnancy interval (IPI) is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, but its contribution to severe maternal morbidity (SMM) remains unclear. We examined the association between IPI and SMM, using data linked across sequential pregnancies to women in California during 1997-2012. Adjusting for confounders measured in the index pregnancy (i.e., the first in a pair of consecutive pregnancies), we estimated adjusted risk ratios for SMM related to the subsequent pregnancy. We further conducted within-mother comparisons and analyses stratified by parity and maternal age at the index pregnancy. Compared with an IPI of 18-23 months, an IPI of <6 months had the same risk for SMM in between-mother comparisons (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91, 1.02) but lower risk in within-mother comparisons (aRR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.86). IPIs of 24-59 months and ≥60 months were associated with increased risk of SMM in both between-mother (aRR = 1.18 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.23) and aRR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.68, 1.85), respectively) and within-mother (aRR = 1.22 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.34) and aRR = 1.88 (95% CI: 1.66, 2.13), respectively) comparisons. The association between IPI and SMM did not vary substantially by maternal age or parity. In this study, longer IPI was associated with increased risk of SMM, which may be partly attributed to interpregnancy health.

Managing the tension between caring and charting: Labor and delivery nurses' experiences of the electronic health record

Wisner, K., Chesla, C. A., Spetz, J., & Lyndon, A. (2021). Research in Nursing and Health, 44(5), 822-832. 10.1002/nur.22177
Over a decade following the nationwide push to implement electronic health records (EHRs), the focus has shifted to addressing the cognitive burden associated with their use. Most research and discourse about the EHR's impact on clinicians' cognitive work has focused on physicians rather than on nursing-specific issues. Labor and delivery nurses may encounter unique challenges when using EHRs because they also interact with an electronic fetal monitoring system, continuously managing and synthesizing both maternal and fetal data. This grounded theory study explored labor and delivery nurses' perceptions of the EHR's impact on their cognitive work. Data were individual interviews and participant observations with twenty-one nurses from two labor and delivery units in the western U.S. and were analyzed using dimensional analysis. Nurses managed the tension between caring and charting using various strategies to integrate the EHR into their dynamic, high-acuity, specialty practice environment while using EHRs that were not designed for perinatal patients. Use of the EHR and associated technologies disrupted nurses' ability to locate and synthesize information, maintain an overview of the patient's status, and connect with patients and families. Individual-, group-, and environmental-level factors facilitated or constrained nurses' integration of the EHR. These findings represent critical safety failures requiring comprehensive changes to EHR designs and better processes for responding to end-user experiences. More research is needed to develop EHRs that support the dynamic and relationship-based nature of nurses' work and to align with specialty practice environments.