Allison P Squires


Prof. Allison P Squires headshot

Allison P Squires


Associate Professor
Director, Florence S. Downs PhD Program in Nursing Research and Theory Development

1 212 992 7074
Accepting PhD students

Allison P Squires's additional information

Allison P Squires,  PhD, FAAN, RN, is an associate professor and director of the Florence S. Downs PhD Program in Nursing Research & Theory Development at NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing. She was the 2019–2020 Distinguished Nurse Scholar in Residence for the National Academy of Medicine where she worked on the consensus study for the next Future of Nursing 2020–2030 report. An internationally recognized health services researcher, Prof. Squires has led or participated in studies covering 38 countries, with current active projects Mexico, Ghana, and the European Union. She is also leading the international arm of a COVID-19 study that examines how the global pandemic has affected clinical nursing practice on the frontlines. Domestically, her research focuses on improving immigrant and refugee health outcomes with a special interest in breaking down language barriers during the healthcare encounter.

Prof. Squires has consulted with the Migration Policy Institute and the World Bank on nursing and health workforce issues and produced several major policy analyses with their teams. A prolific writer, Squires has authored over 150 publications, including 100+ in peer-reviewed journals. She serves as an associate editor of the International Journal of Nursing Studies (the top- ranked nursing journal in the world), the research editor for the Journal of Nursing Regulation, and an Associate Editor for BMC Health Services Research.

Prior to entering academia full time, Squires worked as a staff nurse in solid organ transplant and as a staff educator for 11 years in the US healthcare system.

Prof. Squires completed her PhD at Yale University, MSN at Duquesne University, and BSN at the University of Pennsylvania. She completed a Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Health Outcomes Research at the University of Pennsylvania. In addition to her primary appointment at the College of Nursing, she holds affiliated faculty appointments with the Grossman School of Medicine, Center for Latin American Studies, and the Center for Drug Use and HIV Research at NYU.

She is currently accepting PhD students and/or post-doctoral fellows/associates with interests in the following areas: 1) global health, 2) migration & immigrant health, and 3) health services and workforce research.

Post-Doctoral Fellowship - University of Pennsylvania
PhD - Yale University
MSN - Duquesne University
BSN - University of Pennsylvania

Health Services Research

Academy Health
American Nurses Association
Consortium of Universities for Global Health
Interdisciplinary Research Group on Nursing Issues (Academy Health)
National Council for Interpreting in Health Care
Sigma Theta Tau International

Faculty Honors Awards

Chair, New York Academy of Medicine (2021)
Co-Chair, American Academy of Nursing's Global Health Expert Panel (2021)
Vice-Chair, Global Health and Health Care Interest Group for Academy Health (2020)
Chair, New York Academy of Medicine (2020)
Co-Chair, American Academy of Nursing's Global Health Expert Panel (2020)
Chair, Interdisciplinary Research Group on Nursing Issues for Academy Health (2020)
Distinguished Nurse Scholar in Residence, National Academy of Medicine (2020)
Distinguished Nurse Scholar in Residence, National Academy of Medicine (2019)
Chair, Global Health and Health Care Interest Group for Academy Health (2019)
Vice-Chair, Global Health and Health Care Interest Group for Academy Health (2019)
Chair, New York Academy of Medicine (2019)
Co-Chair, American Academy of Nursing's Global Health Expert Panel (2019)
Chair, Interdisciplinary Research Group on Nursing Issues for Academy Health (2019)
Outstanding Scholarly Contribution to Gerontological Nursing Practice, International Journal for Older People Nursing (2018)
Chair, Global Health and Health Care Interest Group for Academy Health (2018)
Prose Award, “A New Era in Global Health” (W. Rosa, Ed.) (2018)
Vice Chair, Interdisciplinary Research Group on Nursing Issues for Academy Health (2018)
Fellow Ambassador to the Media, New York Academy of Medicine (2017)
Distinguished Alumna, Duquesne University (2015)
Fellow, American Academy of Nursing (2015)
Fellow, New York Academy of Medicine (2014)
Fellow, Yale World Fellows Program (2003)


Assessing the influence of patient language preference on 30 day hospital readmission risk from home health care: A retrospective analysis

Squires, A., Ma, C., Miner, S., Feldman, P., Jacobs, E. A., & Jones, S. A. (2022). International Journal of Nursing Studies, 125. 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2021.104093
Background: In home health care, language barriers are understudied. Language barriers between patients and providers are known to affect a variety of patient outcomes. How a patient's language preference influences hospital readmission risk from home health care has yet to be determined. Objective: To determine if home care patients’ language preference is associated with their risk for hospital readmission from home health care within 30 days of hospital discharge. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study of hospital readmissions from an urban home health care agency's administrative records and the national electronic home health care record for the United States, captured between 2010 and 2015. Setting: New York City, New York, USA. Participants: The dataset comprised 90,221 post-hospitalization patients and 6.5 million home health care visits. Methods: First, a Chi-square test was used to determine if there were significant differences in crude readmission rates based on language group. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to adjust for significant differences in known hospital readmission risk factors between to examine all-cause hospital readmission during a home health care stay. The final matched sample included 87,561 patients with a language preference of English, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, or Korean. English-speaking patients were considered the comparison group to the non-English speaking patients. A Marginal Structural Model was applied to estimate the impact of non-English language preference against English language preference on rehospitalization. The results of the marginal structural model were expressed as an odds ratio of likelihood of readmission to the hospital from home health care. Results: Home health patients with a non-English language preference had a higher hospital readmission risk than English-speaking patients. Crude readmission rate for the limited English proficiency patients was 20.4% (95% CI, 19.9–21.0%) overall compared to 18.5% (95% CI, 18.7–19.2%) for English speakers (p < 0.001). Being a non-English-speaking patient was associated with an odds ratio of 1.011 (95% CI, 1.004–1.018) in increased hospital readmission rates from home health care (p = 0.001). There were also statistically significant differences in readmission rate by language group (p < 0.001), with Korean speakers having the lowest rate and Spanish speakers having the highest, when compared to English speakers. Conclusions: People with a non-English language preference have a higher readmission rate from home health care. Hospital and home healthcare agencies may need specialized care coordination services to reduce readmission risk for these patients. Tweetable abstract: A new US-based study finds that home care patients with language barriers are at higher risk for hospital readmission.

Continuity of Nursing Care in Home Health: Impact on Rehospitalization among Older Adults with Dementia

Ma, C., McDonald, M. V., Feldman, P. H., Miner, S., Jones, S., & Squires, A. (2021). Medical Care, 59(10), 913-920. 10.1097/MLR.0000000000001599
Background: Home health care (HHC) is a leading form of home and community-based services for persons with dementia (PWD). Nurses are the primary providers of HHC; however, little is known of nursing care delivery and quality. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the association between continuity of nursing care in HHC and rehospitalization among PWD. Research Design: This is a retrospective cohort study using multiple years (2010-2015) of HHC assessment, administrative, and human resources data from a large urban not-for-profit home health agency. Subjects: This study included 23,886 PWD receiving HHC following a hospitalization. Measures: Continuity of nursing care was calculated using the Bice and Boxerman method, which considered the number of total visits, nurses, and visits from each nurse during an HHC episode. The outcome was all-cause rehospitalization during HHC. Risk-Adjusted logistic regression was used for analysis. Results: Approximately 24% of PWD were rehospitalized. The mean continuity of nursing care score was 0.56 (SD=0.33). Eight percent of PWD received each nursing visit from a different nurse (no continuity), and 26% received all visits from one nurse during an HHC episode (full continuity). Compared with those receiving high continuity of nursing care (third tertile), PWD receiving low (first tertile) or moderate (second tertile) continuity of nursing care had an adjusted odds ratio of 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-1.46) and 1.30 (95% confidence interval: 1.22-1.43), respectively, for being rehospitalized. Conclusions: Wide variations exist in continuity of nursing care to PWD. Consistency in nurse staff when providing HHC visits to PWD is critical for preventing rehospitalizations.

Cultural adaptation of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Short Form (SAQ-SF) in Poland

Malinowska-Lipien, I., Brzyski, P., Gabrys, T., Gniadek, A., Kozka, M., Kawalec, P., Brzostek, T., & Squires, A. (2021). PloS One, 16(2). 10.1371/journal.pone.0246340
Background It is essential to provide safe healthcare in complex, difficult, and quickly changing conditions. The quality of healthcare services directly influences the safety of both the patients and staff. Understanding healthcare staff attitudes toward safety in the healthcare delivery context is foundational for building a culture of safety. Aim of the work To adapt, via a structured translation methodology, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire- Short Form (SAQ-SF), which assesses how employees of the health care sector perceive the safety climate in their workplace, to the Polish context. Methods Using a content validation approach to structure the translation process, we tested and psychometrically analysed the translated SAQ-SF. The sample comprised 322 employees of a district hospital (second referral level, which ensures 24/7 emergency care services) in Poland. Results The reliability of the sub-scales of the Polish version of the SAQ-SF ranged from 0.66 to 0.95. The discriminatory power of particular SAQ items ranged between 0.02 and 0.90. For 6 out of the 8 scale dimensions, the questions with the highest factor loadings were those measuring the same dimensions of the safety climate, according to the original scale. Conclusions The Polish version of the SAQ-SF (SAQ-SF-PL) meets the criteria of psychometric and functional validation as well as demonstrates good reliability as a measure of patient safety culture in the Polish context. The SAQ-SF-PL is an instrument that enable a valid and reliable assessment of patient safety climate in the Polish healthcare facilities and identify opportunities for improvement. International comparisons will also become easier.

Defining Telepresence as Experienced in Telehealth Encounters: A Dimensional Analysis

Groom, L. L., Brody, A. A., & Squires, A. P. (2021). Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 53(6), 709-717. 10.1111/jnu.12684
Purpose: Telehealth’s uptake has increased substantially in recent years, with an especially large jump in 2020 due to the emergence of COVID-19. This article provides background on and explores “telepresence” in healthcare literature. Telepresence strongly impacts the patient experience, but it is poorly defined in current research. The aim was to conceptually define telepresence using qualitative methods. Design: Dimensional analysis was used to analyze telepresence in clinical literature and create a clearer definition of telepresence as a concept. Multiple databases were searched for articles related to telepresence. Thirteen international articles related to telepresence were selected for analysis. Methods: Dimensional analysis allowed for multiple viewpoints to be explored within each distinct context and perspective. Findings: Twenty-five dimensions were discovered within the articles, which were synthesized to seven core dimensions of telepresence: connection, technological mediation, experienced realism, trust, being supportive, collaboration, and emotional consequence. Conclusions: Telepresence is highly impactful on the patient’s experience of telehealth care visits. The conceptual map produced by this dimensional analysis provides direction for clinicians to improve their ability to be present with patients during telehealth care. Potential implications include a starting point for future qualitative research, and the use of this dimensional analysis to inform clinical guidelines, improve clinician training, and assist in the development of new care models. Clinical Relevance: A telepresence definition brings clarity to an ill-defined concept. COVID-19 magnifies the need for a better understanding of telepresence, which allows clinicians to improve telehealth encounters.

Disparities in breastfeeding duration of New York City Latinx mothers by birth region

Gerchow, L., Squires, A., & Jones, S. (2021). Breastfeeding Medicine, 16(8), 607-613. 10.1089/bfm.2021.0030
Background: Disparities in breastfeeding patterns by race and ethnicity in the United States have been documented, and Latinx ethnicity is often associated with higher rates of breastfeeding initiation and longer breastfeeding duration compared to other U.S. racial and ethnic groups. Despite marked differences in infant feeding practices in Latinx countries of origin, U.S. breastfeeding data are routinely presented with Latinx as a single category. Objective: To analyze breastfeeding duration of New York City Latinx mothers by birth region. Methods: Using data from the 2016 New York City Work and Family Leave Survey (WAFLS) surveying residents who gave birth in 2014, we conducted a survival analysis of breastfeeding duration in a sample of Latinx-identifying mothers (n = 271), who reported having ever breastfed their child. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for time to breastfeeding cessation were created for four birth regions (United States, Caribbean, Mexico/Central America, and South America) and compared using the log-rank test. Adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) were calculated using Cox regression. Results: Survival curves and median breastfeeding duration were significantly different between the four regions. AHR models found that non-Caribbean birthplace was significantly associated with a lower risk of early breastfeeding cessation. Being partnered at the time of childbirth and neonate hospitalization of 6 days or longer was associated with a greater risk of earlier breastfeeding cessation. Conclusion: The significant differences reinforce the need to separate breastfeeding findings by birth region in the Latinx population. Within-group differences are lost in combined analyses and reinforce conclusions that Latinx mothers have optimal breastfeeding behaviors.

Disparities in chronic kidney disease-the state of the evidence

Clark-Cutaia, M. N., Rivera, E., Iroegbu, C., & Squires, A. (2021). Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 30(2), 208-214. 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000688
Purpose of review The purpose of this review was to assess the prevalence of United States chronic kidney disease (CKD) health disparities, focusing on racial/ethnic groups, immigrants and refugees, sex or gender, and older adults. Recent findings There are major racial/ethnic disparities in CKD, with possible contributions from the social determinants of health, socioeconomics, and racial discrimination. Racial/ethnic minority patients experience faster progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and higher mortality predialysis, however, once on dialysis, appear to live longer. Similarly, men are quicker to progress to ESKD than women, with potential biological, behavioral, and measurement error factors. There is a lack of substantial evidence for intersex, nonbinary, or transgender patients. There are also strikingly few studies about US immigrants or older adults with CKD despite the fact that they are at high risk for CKD due to a variety of factors. Summary As providers and scientists, we must combat both conscious and unconscious biases, advocate for minority patient populations, and be inclusive and diverse in our treatment regimens and provision of care. We need to acknowledge that sufficient evidence exists to change treatment guidelines, and that more is required to support the diversity of our patient population.

Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) for Global Health

Steeb, D. R., Brock, T. P., Dascanio, S. A., Drain, P. K., Squires, A., Thumm, M., Tittle, R., & Haines, S. T. (2021). Academic Medicine : Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 96(3), 402-408. 10.1097/ACM.0000000000003856
PURPOSE: As global health education and training shift toward competency-based approaches, academic institutions and organizations must define appropriate assessment strategies for use across health professions. The authors aim to develop entrustable professional activities (EPAs) for global health to apply across academic and workplace settings. METHOD: In 2019, the authors invited 55 global health experts from medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and public health to participate in a multiround, online Delphi process; 30 (55%) agreed. Experts averaged 17 years of global health experience, and 12 (40%) were from low- to middle-income countries. In round one, participants listed essential global health activities. The authors used in vivo coding for round one responses to develop initial EPA statements. In subsequent rounds, participants used 5-point Likert-type scales to evaluate EPA statements for importance and relevance to global health across health professions. The authors elevated statements that were rated 4 (important/relevant to most) or 5 (very important/relevant to all) by a minimum of 70% of participants (decided a priori) to the final round, during which participants evaluated whether each statement represented an observable unit of work that could be assigned to a trainee. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data analysis. The authors used participant comments to categorize EPA statements into role domains. RESULTS: Twenty-two EPA statements reached at least 70% consensus. The authors categorized these into 5 role domains: partnership developer, capacity builder, data analyzer, equity advocate, and health promoter. Statements in the equity advocate and partnership developer domains had the highest agreement for importance and relevance. Several statements achieved 100% agreement as a unit of work but achieved lower levels of agreement regarding their observability. CONCLUSIONS: EPAs for global health may be useful to academic institutions and other organizations to guide the assessment of trainees within education and training programs across health professions.

Evaluating Polish nurses' working conditions and patient safety during the COVID-19 pandemic

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Graduate level health professions education: how do previous work experiences influence perspectives about interprofessional collaboration?

Squires, A., Miner, S., Greenberg, S. A., Adams, J., Kalet, A., & Cortes, T. (2021). Journal of Interprofessional Care, 35(2), 193-199. 10.1080/13561820.2020.1732888
Understanding how previous experiences with interprofessional education and collaboration inform health care provider perspectives is important for developing interprofessional interventions at the graduate level. The purpose of this study was to examine how previous work experiences of graduate level health professions students inform perspectives about interprofessional education and collaboration. Drawing from program evaluation data of two separate graduate level interprofessional education interventions based in primary care and home health care, we conducted a qualitative secondary data analysis of 75 interviews generated by focus groups and individual interviews with graduate students from 4 health professions cadres. Using directed content analysis, the team coded to capture descriptions of interprofessional education or collaboration generated from participants’ previous work experiences. Coding revealed 173 discrete descriptions related to previous experiences of interprofessional education or collaboration. Three themes were identified from the analysis that informed participant perspectives: Previous educational experiences (including work-based training); previous work experiences; and organizational factors and interprofessional collaboration. Experiences varied little between professions except when aspects of professional training created unique circumstances. The study reveals important differences between graduate and undergraduate learners in health professions programs that can inform interprofessional education and collaboration intervention design.

How clinicians manage routinely low supplies of personal protective equipment

Ridge, L. J., Stimpfel, A. W., Dickson, V. V., Klar, R. T., & Squires, A. P. (2021). American Journal of Infection Control. 10.1016/j.ajic.2021.08.012
Background: Recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) is routinely limited or unavailable in low-income countries, but there is limited research as to how clinicians adapt to that scarcity, despite the implications for patients and workers. Methods: This is a qualitative secondary analysis of case study data collected in Liberia in 2019. Data from the parent study were included in this analysis if it addressed availability and use of PPE in the clinical setting. Conventional content analysis was used on data including: field notes documenting nurse practice, semi-structured interview transcripts, and photographs. Results: Data from the majority of participants (32/37) and all facilities (12/12) in the parent studies were included. Eighty-three percent of facilities reported limited PPE. Five management strategies for coping with limited PPE supplies were observed, reported, or both: rationing PPE, self-purchasing PPE, asking patients to purchase PPE, substituting PPE, and working without PPE. Approaches to rationing PPE included using PPE only for symptomatic patients or not performing physical exams. Substitutions for PPE were based on supply availability. Conclusions: Strategies developed by clinicians to manage low PPE likely have negative consequences for both workers and patients; further research into the topic is important, as is better PPE provision in low-income countries.